ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
不同水分管理下施肥对陕北山地枣树生长 及产量效应研究
杨阳
Subtype学士
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword土壤肥力 保墒 产量 施肥模式 红枣
Abstract

本试验采用田间试验,应用裂区设计,主处理设置了坡地滴灌、秸秆覆盖保墒
和鱼鳞坑保墒三种节水措施,副处理采用三因素最优D 饱和设计,设置了10 个施
肥处理,施肥因素包括N、P、K 三种元素,研究三种不同节水措施下连续两年施肥
对山地枣树生长,产量变化,施肥效果及土壤肥力的影响。得到主要研究结果如下:
(1)分析三种不同保墒措施下枣树长势,得出单施钾肥更有利于枣树新枝生
长,滴灌下新枝生长量值达到17.59cm;在秸秆覆盖下,新枝生长量达11.94cm,
在鱼鳞坑保墒下,其值也可达9.87cm。不同措施下新枝生长量大小比较:滴灌>秸
秆覆盖>鱼鳞坑保墒。与其它施肥处理相比,滴灌条件下N3P3K1 处理枣树叶片相对
叶绿素含量与地经增长量最大,分别为26.55mg/g 和1.4cm,远高于秸秆覆盖和鱼
鳞坑保墒条件下数值。
(2)施肥有明显的增产效应,不同施肥处理枣树产量不同。2009 年三种保墒
措施下单施K 肥枣树坐果率都明显提高,其中滴灌下坐果率提高最高可以达到
12.8%,不同保墒措施下红枣坐果率大小顺序为:山地滴灌>秸秆覆盖>鱼鳞坑保墒。
2010 年,滴灌条件下N2P2 处理枣树坐果率最高,为14.29%,而单施K 肥坐果率同
比2009 年下降25.14%。连续两年三种保墒措施下N1P3K3 处理产量最高,净收益最
大,其中2010 年山地滴灌条件下枣树产量为21026.8kg/hm2,净收入为415724 元
/hm2;秸秆覆盖条件下则为17984.8kg/hm2,净收入为350975.5 元/hm2;鱼鳞坑条
件枣果产量为1335.1kg/hm2,净收入为257981.5 元/hm2,远低于山地滴灌和秸秆
覆盖条件下枣树产量和净收益。
(3)单施氮、磷、钾肥处理中,连续两年不同保墒措施下每公斤肥料增产量
大小顺序一致,都是K>N>P,说明钾和氮是影响黄土高原山地枣树产量的重要因素,
尤其应注意在山地枣园施用钾肥。NPK 配施能够增加肥料的贡献率,不同保墒措施
下肥料贡献率不同,不同降雨年型对肥料贡献率也有影响。2009 年N1P3K3 处理滴
灌条件下肥料贡献率率为24.38%,秸秆覆盖条件下为55.69%,鱼鳞坑条件下则为
47.56%。而2010 年秸秆覆盖保墒下N1P3K3 肥料贡献率最高,为59.36%,分别是同一处理滴灌和鱼鳞坑条件下的2.73 倍和1.25 倍,表明一定程度的干旱时,合理的
使用肥料可以较好的调节土壤中的水分含量,维持增加枣果产量,真正起到以肥调
水的作用。
(4)施肥可以提高山地枣园土壤养分含量,培肥土壤。试验结果表明,单施
氮、磷、钾处理中,P3 处理有机质含量最高,0-20cm 土层为8.03g/kg,单施N 肥
全氮和速效磷含量最高,分别为0.80g/kg 和20.78mg/kg,单施K 可以提高土壤速
效钾含量,达到了398.35mg/kg。氮磷钾肥配施中,N1P3K3 处理培肥效果最好,有
机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾含量分别15.16g/kg、0.93g/kg、45.02mg/kg 和
763.77mg/kg。连续施氮肥使土壤中硝态氮含量增加,并在土壤剖面出现20-60cm
硝态氮富集,合理配施磷钾肥有利于减少硝态氮累积,提高肥料施用效果。不同施
肥处理间土壤铵态氮含量变化差异不大,在土壤剖面0-60cm 土层分布较均匀。
(5)依据因素间交互作用可以得出在不同节水措施下缺素对产量的影响。山
地滴灌模式下缺K 产量最高,其次为缺N,最后为缺P。秸秆覆盖模式下,缺N 产
量最高,其次为缺P,最后为缺K。在鱼鳞坑模式下缺N 产量最高,其次为缺P,最
后为缺K。
(6)建立了不同水分条件下施肥对山地红枣产量的数学回归模型。提出了不
同水分条件下,红枣产量的N、P、K 肥的最优施肥量和施肥方式。在山地滴灌模
式下红枣目标产量在18000~25000 kg/hm2 之间的N、P、K 优化施肥方案:施N 肥
用量为829.95~1367.85kg/hm2,施P2O5 用量为1706.1~2859.45 kg/hm2,施K2O 用量
为447.15~580.8 kg/hm2。在秸秆覆盖模式下红枣目标产量在15000~18000 kg/hm2 之
间的N、P、K 优化施肥方案:施N 肥用量为131.34~1148.4kg/hm2,施P2O5 用量为
759~3031.05 kg/hm2,施K2O 用量为724.35~805.2kg/hm2。在山地鱼鳞坑模式下红枣
目标产量在12000~15000 kg/hm2 之间的N、P、K 优化施肥方案:施N 肥用量为
679.8~1181.4kg/hm2,施P2O5 用量为826.65~2222.55 kg/hm2,施K2O 用量为
333.3~722.7kg/hm2。
关键词:土壤肥力;保墒;产量;施肥模式;红枣

Other Abstract

Adopt three elements of optimality D saturation design, moisture in the ranking area
is set up 3 modes, which are drop irrigation in mountain region; soil moisture
preservation by covering with straw and the mountain soil moisture preserved in
fish-scale pit. Three nutritional elements are included in handling fertilizing, namely N, P
and K. After two years studying the relationship of the fertilizer efficiency, the growth
and yield change of jujube and soil nutrient content under different modes of drop
irrigation in mountain region, soil moisture covered by straw and mountain preserving
soil moisture in fish-scale pit, we can see the result shows:
(1) Under different soil moisture in different growing period of jujube in mountain
regions, K3 treatment is berrer for the growth rate of new shoots.It reached 17.59cm,
11.94cm and 9.87cm respectively in drop irrigation ,straw mulching and fish-scale pit
conditions.The order of three soil moisture on new branch growth is:drop
irrigation>straw mulching>fish-scale pit.Comparing with other treatments,the
chlorophyll content and diameter expanding of N3P3K1 treatment is the biggest under
drop irrigation condition far above the numeric value under strae mulching and fish-scale
pit condtions witch reached 26.55mg/g and 1.4cm.
(2)Fertilization significantly increased the jujube yield and the effect is different
with different fertilizer. In the year 2009,K3 treatment is better for the fruit-bearing rate in
the three saving water measures and the highest fruit-bearing rate reached 12.8% on
mountain drop irrigation.The order of different soil moisture on fruit-bearing rate is :drop
irrigation>straw mulching>fish-scale pit. In the year 2010,the highest fruit-bearing rate
was obtained by N2P2 treatment while that of K3 decreased by 25.14% compared to the
fruit-bearing rate of 2009 under the condition of mountain drop irrigation. After two
years fertilization ,the yield of jujube in N1P3K3 treatment is the highest among the three
water saving measures. In the year of 2010, , the yield of jujube can reached
21026.8kg/hm2 under mountain drop irrigation and net income is 415724yuan/hm2;Under  mountain straw much condition,the yield of jujube reached 17984.8kg/hm2 and net
income is 350975.5yuan/hm2;The yield of jujube under fish-scale pit is lower than the
two other conditions which reached 1335.1kg/hm2 and the net income is
257981.5yuan/hm2.
(3) After two years fertilization treatment with the single use of N,P,K,the output of
yield per unit fertilizer has the same trend under three soil moisture:K>N>P. The results
obtained indicated that N and K are the major factors affecting the jujube yield on loess
plateau,especially the application of K fertilizer on hillside jujube farm.The combination
of NPK can increase the fertilizer contribution rate significantly and the effect of
different soil moisture and years also has a difference. In the year 2009,the contribution
rate of N1P3K3 treatment reached 24.38%,55.69% and 47.56% respectively under drop
irrigation,straw mulching and fish-scale pit condtions.While in the year 2010,the highest
contribution rate is 59.36%.It was obtained by N1P3K3 treatment under straw mulching
condion which is 2.73 and 1.25 times than that under drop irrigation and fish-scale pit
condition. The results showed that the conservative use of fertilizer can improve the
jujube yild by regulating the water content of soil in a certain degree of drought.
(4) Fertilization can improve soil nutrient content and soil fertility.The results
showed that with the single use of N,P,K fertilizers,soil organic matter of P3 treatment is
the highest and reached 8.03g/kg in 0-20 cm layer;N3 treatment achieved goog results on
total N and available P content by reaching 0.80g/kg and 20.78mg/kg respectively;Soil
abailable K content was obtained to 398.35mg/kg by using single K fertilizer. The effect
of NPK fertilizer combination was the most obvious.Soil organic matter,total N
content,available P and avalibale K in N1P3K3 treatment reached
15.16g/kg.0.93g/kg.45.02mg/kg and 763.77mg/kg respectively compared to CK
treatment.After two years,the NO3-N accumulation content increased significantly and
mainly stroed in the layer of 20-60cm.Applying with P and K fertilizer can reduce the
accumulation of NO3-N.There is no difference of NH4-N content between different
fertilized treatment and it was equally disreibuted from 0-60cm layer.
(5) Based on the factors interaction ,we can find the effects of poor nourishment in
soil on jujube yield under different soil moisture.Under the drop irrigation
condition,lacking of K has the biggest jujube yield. Lacking of N is on the second place
and lacking of P is the third.On the condition of straw mulching,the jujube yield of
lacking N is the greatest and secondly is lacking of P.Lacking of K is the nect.The
situation under fish-scale pit has the same trend as that in straw mulching condition.  (6) Established mathematical regression model of different fertilization applying for
jujube yield under different moisture conditon, and received the optimum N 、P 、K
fertilization for jujube yield under different moisture condition. Under the mountain drop
irrigation,the optimum rates of N,P,K fertilizer for realizing the yield goat of
18000~25000kg/hm2isN :829.95~1367.85kg/hm2,P2O5:1706.1~2859.45kg/hm2,K2O:447.
15~480.8kg/hm2; Under the straw mulch condition, the optimum rates of N,P,K fertilizer
for realizing the yield goat of 15000~18000kg/hm2 is N:131.34~1148.4kg/hm2,
P2O5:759~3031.05kg/hm2, K2O:724.35~805.24kg/hm2; Under the mountain fish-scale pit,
the optimum rates of N,P,K fertilizer for realizing the yield goat of 12000~15000kg/hm2
is N: 679.8~1181.4 kg/hm2, P2O5: 826.65~2222.55 kg/hm2, K2O: 333.3~722.7 kg/hm2.
Key Words:soil fertility; preserve soil moisture; yield; fertilizing model;jujube

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8877
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨阳. 不同水分管理下施肥对陕北山地枣树生长 及产量效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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