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黄土塬区水氮与冬小麦生长及其环境要素 的耦合效应研究
沈 新 磊
Subtype博士
2010-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword黄土塬区 冬小麦 施氮 土壤水分 耦合 硝态氮 光合参数 小气 候 产量
Abstract

针对黄土塬区水氮耦合对冬小麦生产和相关环境要素的影响问题,以典型农
作物冬小麦为供试作物,通过连续两年的大田小区试验,研究了不同水氮条件下
麦田水氮运移特征,冬小麦的生理生态指标响应特征,麦田群体小气候的变化特
征和冬小麦籽粒产量及蛋白质含量的变化特征,主要结论如下:
1)麦田土壤贮水量随灌水量增加明显增加,施氮量对其影响较小。与旱作和
不施氮条件比较,灌水和适量施氮条件下冬小麦全生育期耗水强度明显较大。施
氮和适量灌水有利于提高籽粒水分利用效率。氮素对水分利用效率的影响明显高
于水分。在不补充灌水条件下,经历了一个偏旱年和一个平水年之后,高施氮量
处理麦田0~3 m 土层土壤贮水量降低,而中低施氮量处理麦田土壤贮水量保持不
变或者有所增加。
2)氮素对土壤硝态氮累积量的影响明显高于水分,土壤硝态氮含量基本均随
施氮量增加而增大。在冬小麦收获期,以高施氮量处理土壤硝态氮累积量明显较
大,中等施氮量处理较小,低施氮量处理居中。灌水有利于减少土壤硝态氮累积
量,随着灌水量的增加,导致土壤硝态氮累积的施氮量临界值也不断提高。
3)麦田地表0~10 cm 土壤含水量受灌水量明显影响,而受施氮量影响不明显。
麦田0~50 cm 土层平均土壤含水量同时受到灌水和施氮的明显影响。灌水能明显
降低冬小麦起身期以后麦田地表温度。在灌浆成熟期,旱作条件下,麦田昼间地
温基本随施氮量增加而递减,不同施氮量处理昼间最大温差达到5℃。灌水量与灌
浆期和成熟期昼间株温和穗温的相关性明显高于施氮量,呈负相关关系。施氮能
明显降低冬小麦开花期的群体透光率,灌水能明显增加冬小麦群体近地面株间空
气相对湿度,适中的水氮组合则能明显增加冬小麦群体内部空气CO2 浓度。灌水
能够明显增加冬小麦生育期历时,而施氮对其影响较小。
4)在一定范围内,叶面积指数随施氮量和灌水量的增加而增大,但只有适宜
的施氮量才能获得最大的单茎叶面积,叶片SPAD 值基本随施氮量增加而增加,
与灌水量关系不大。灌水和施氮均有利于叶片在灌浆期保持较高的净光合速率和蒸腾速率,施氮还可以在一定程度上缓解水分胁迫对叶片净光合速率和蒸腾速率
的影响。施氮条件下,冬小麦灌浆成熟期灌水处理叶片水分利用效率明显高于旱
作处理。施氮和灌水均有利于提高灌浆后期叶片气孔导度,且土壤水分越充足,
不同施氮量间叶片气孔导度的差异越明显。冬小麦开花以后,叶片气孔限制值随
灌水量增加而减小,不同施氮处理间叶片气孔限制值的差异随灌水量增加而减小。
冬小麦孕穗以后,灌水量与叶片净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的相关性明显
高于施氮量;灌水量与叶片水分利用效率和气孔限制值的相关性在灌浆期低于施
氮量,而在成熟期则高于施氮量。
5)施氮和灌水均有利于增加返青期的冬小麦单茎数,对抽穗期单茎数影响不
大。施氮和灌水均能明显增加冬小麦灌浆期株高和茎粗,灌水和施氮条件下的冬
小麦最大株高比不灌水不施氮处理高出72%;灌水和施氮条件下的冬小麦最大茎
粗比不灌水不施氮处理增加了1.4 倍。相关分析表明,施氮量与冬小麦单茎数显著
相关,与株高、茎粗及地上生物量的相关性不显著;灌水量与单茎数相关不显著,
与株高、茎粗及地上生物量极显著相关。施氮和灌水均能明显提高冬小麦地上部
分干物质的累积量,灌水还能明显增加冬小麦灌浆期历时。
6)冬小麦籽粒产量、穗数和穗粒数基本随施氮量的增加而增大,千粒重基本
随施氮量的增加而减小。籽粒产量、穗数和千粒重均随灌水量增加而增大。旱作
处理的产投明显高于灌水处理,偏旱年以施氮300 kgN·ha-1 时冬小麦产投比最大,
平水年以225 kgN·ha-1 时冬小麦产投比最大。
7)不同水氮处理间籽粒蛋白质含量存在显著差异,冬小麦籽粒蛋白质含量与
施氮量极显著相关,基本随着施氮量增加而增大;籽粒蛋白质含量与灌水量呈不
显著负相关,旱作条件下籽粒蛋白质含量明显高于灌水处理,不同灌水量处理间
差异不大。
关键词: 黄土塬区;冬小麦;施氮;土壤水分;耦合;硝态氮;光合参数;小气
候;产量

Other Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to study the couple effect of water and nitrogen
on production and relevant environment factors in a tableland area of the Loess Plateau
by growing winter wheat (triticum aestivum l.) for two years. The movement
characteristics of water and nitrogen in wheat field, the physiological and
ecological responses of wheat 1canopy, the microclimate data in wheat field, and the
grain yields and protein contents under different water and nitrogen conditions were
measured in different growth stage.The main results are as follows:
1)N fertilizer rate had little effect on the increasing of water storage with the
increasing of irrigation level in wheat field. Both irrigation and appropriate N level
would significantly improve the intensity of water consumption and water use
efficiency; the effect of N level on grain water use efficiency was more important than
irrigation. Under no irrigation treatment, the water storage of 0~3 m soil in high N
fertilizer wheat field decreased through a slight dry year and an average rainfall year,
while the water storage of 0~3 m soil in middle and low N fertilizer wheat field
remained or increased a little.
2)The effect of N fertilizer was bigger than irrigation on soil nitrate. Soil nitrate
did not increase accordingly with increasing of N fertilizer level. The order of soil
nitrate content was high N fertilizer>low N fertilizer>middle N fertilizer. Irrigation
would reduce the accumulation of soil nitrate, and more N fertilizer was needed to lead
to the accumulation of soil nitrate with the increasing of irrigation.
3)The water content of 0~10 cm soil increased with the increasing of irrigation
level, the water content 0~50 cm soil was affected by both irrigation and N fertilizer.  Irrigation decreased the soil surface temperature in daytime after jointing stage. During
filling and ripening stage, the ground temperature of wheat field in daytime decreased
with the increasing of N fertilizer, and the range among different N fertilizer reached to
5℃. The negative correlation coefficient with plant temperature and panicle temperature
of irrigation was significant high than that of N fertilizer level. The wheat population
transmittance at anthesis decreased rapidly with the increasing of nitrogen level. The
wheat population air relative humidity at anthesis increased with the increasing of
nitrogen level under irrigation treatment. The air CO2 concentration of wheat population
under proper N fertilizer and irrigation level was far greater than bare land. Winter
wheat growth duration prolonged by increasing irrigation, while N fertilizer had little
effect on wheat growth duration.
4) LAI increased with the increase of nitrogen and irrigation level during the same
growing stage. However, the greatest LAI was not observed in the highest nitrogen level.
SPAD value increased with the increase of nitrogen level, and irrigation did not
influence the change of SPAD value. Both irrigation and nitrogen treatment had higher
photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate during the grain filling stage, and nitrogen
buffered the influence of the leaf photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate for water
stress. Under N treatment, WUEleaf of irrigation was significant higher than rainfed. The
stomatal conductance in 1filling stage was increased with the increase of N and irrigation
level. After anthesis, the Ls decreased and the difference of Ls among the different of
the N fertilizer level declined, with the increase of irrigation level. The correlation index
of Pn, Tr and Cond was significantly higher in irrigation treatment than in N treatment
after booting. The correlation index of WUEleaf and Ls was lower in irrigation level than
in N fertilizer level at grain filling stage, but higher at maturity.
5) Both N and irrigation treatments significant increased the stem per plant at
recovery stage. The irrigation treatment did not influence the stem per plant after
jointing. At grain filling stage, N and irrigation treatments significant increased the plant
height and stem diameter. The 1maximum plant hight was 72% higher than the 1minimum
one, and the 1maximum stem diameter was 1.4-fold more than the 1minimum one. A
correlation analysis for the stem per plant found that, the stem per plant was
significantly correlation coefficient with N treatment, but not irrigation. The plant height,  stem diameter and aboveground were markedly significantly correlation coefficient with
irrigation treatment, but there were no significant difference of correlation coefficient
with N treatment. N and irrigation treatments significant increased the accumulation of
aboveground dry matter of winter wheat. The duration of grain filling stage was longer
with the increase of irrigation level.
6) The grain yield, spike number and grain number increased and thousand kernel
weight reduced with the increase of N level. The ranking of grain yield, spike number
and thousand kernel weight was W2>W1>W0. The trade-off was significantly higher
in rainfed than irrigation, and the greatest trade-off was observed in 300 kgN·ha-1 in the
slight dry year. In the year of average rainfall, the the greatest trade-off was observed in
225 kgN·ha-1.
7) There was significant difference of grain protein content among different
irrigation and N treatment. The grain protein content increased with the increase of N
fertilizer level, and higher in rainfed than irrigation treatment, but did not differ among
irrigation treatment.
Keywords: Tableland area of the Loess Plateau; Winter wheat (triticum aestivum l.); N;
Soil water; Couple effect; Nitrate; Photosynthetic parameters; Microclimate; Grain
yield.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8870
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
沈 新 磊. 黄土塬区水氮与冬小麦生长及其环境要素 的耦合效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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