ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
人类活动对无定河流域水土流失演变的影响
孟 强
Subtype博士
2010-09
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Abstract

本文以无定河流域为研究对象,在分析该流域水土流失历史根源的基础上,研究流
域的水土保持治理过程和土地利用/覆被变化,从年际尺度上分析流域的径流量、输沙
量的趋势性变化及其影响因素,并对流域径流、输沙的周期性以及人类活动对周期性的
影响进行研究,最后对流域内径流量、输沙量变化中的人为因素进行估算。主要取得以
下研究进展:
(一)无定河流域严重的水土流失有其深刻的历史根源,历史时期不断增加的人口
是无定河流域人为水土流失的根本原因,森林植被的破坏是水土流失的直接动因,农耕
文明与游牧文明的博弈、战争以及落后的农业技术条件对历史时期无定河水土流失的演
变具有重要影响。
(二)无定河流域作为我国水土保持小流域综合治理的重点,政府和群众进行了集
中、连续的投资。自1984-2006 年,陕西省无定河流域重点小流域治理累计投资总额
11.67 亿元,其中政府投资占总投资的20.83%,群众投资占79.17%,群众投资占主体。
期间,陕西省无定河流域重点小流域累计新增水土保持措施面积129.40 万hm2,其中经
济林的比重逐年增加。流域水土保持综合治理产生了明显的生态效益、经济效益和社会
效益。
(三)采用遥感及GIS 技术对无定河流域的土地利用变化进行研究,结果表明30
年来无定河流域的土地利用类型发生较大的变化,受政策和人类活动的影响耕地经历一
个前期增加,后期减少的过程。林地逐渐增加,在流域所占的比例增加3.11%。
(四)采用Mann-Kendall 和Sperman 水文要素趋势分析研究表明,近50 年来,无
定河流域内各水文站径流量、输沙量都出现减少的趋势,通过Pettitt 突变分析,无定河
流域各水文站径流量、输沙量都存在显著的突变点,且各水文站突变时间具有显著的差
别,流域控制水文站白家川水文站径流在1973 年发生突变,输沙在1971 年发生突变。
采用流量历时曲线对各水文站突变点前后时段径流、输沙的频率特征进行分析表明,在
同一频率下,各水文站径流、输沙在突变点后都表现出显著的减少趋势。分析表明,人类活动特别是水土保持生态建设是引起径流、输沙减少的主要因素。水土保持治理措施
和治理程度的不同是各水文站径流、输沙突变时间和变化程度不同的主要影响因素。
(五)采用小波分析方法,对无定河流域水文序列的周期性特征及人类活动对其周
期变化的影响进行分析,结果表明无定河流域降雨、径流和输沙序列都存在显著的周期
变化,其中降水周期以15.5a 为其主周期,径流、输沙以22a 左右为主周期。三年尺度
上,径流、输沙周期的相位在20 世纪60 年代相对降水表现出一定的滞后现象,60 年代
末期至70 年代,三个水文序列的相对关系趋于紊乱,80 年代,径流和输沙周期的相位
再次趋于同步,但与降水的相位差较60 年代偏大。12 年尺度上,60、70 年代降水、径
流和输沙周期的相位具有显著差异性,80 年代,其相对关系趋于同步。23 年大尺度上,
降雨-径流周期变化基本同步,但滞后于输沙周期。人类活动对径流、输沙周期的影响
随着尺度的增大而减弱。分析表明无定河流域20 世纪60、70 年代始开始的水土流失治
理特别是水库、淤地坝等水利工程的建设,可能是引起径流、输沙序列周期相位变化的
直接原因,而相应时期社会政策因素的引导是水文序列周期变化的驱动因素。
(六)采用降水-径流、降水-输沙统计模型,对无定河流域控制期径流量、输沙
量变化中人类活动的影响程度进行估算。结果表明,大规模水土保持建设后的控制期,
由人类活动影响而减少的径流量占全流域径流减少总量的75%,在输沙减少量中,人类
活动的贡献率为80%。
关键词:无定河流域;人类活动;径流量;输沙量;趋势性分析;周期分析

Other Abstract

Human activities are becoming the dominant factor that infect and change the natural
environment. Along with economic development and population growth, the intensity of the
basin exploitation was increased. At the same time, runoff and sediment loading of most
rivers in the world appeared significant changed, especially in Yellow River basin. From a
conventional viewpoint, human activities to alleviate flow conditions appear to be a growing
necessity. So that it is important to further study human’s role during the evolution process,
and it is meaning to understand the anthropogenic influence during the environmental changes
of the world. In addition it is useful to guide the ecological environment protection and carry
out economies and societies construction.
The Wuding River is one of the distributary of the Yellow River with heavy sediment
yield. The quantities of the sediment loading that entered into the Yellow river tremendous
influenced the sediment variation of the Yellow River. Since 1950’s, the Wuding River was
listed as the key area in which carried out soil and water conservation by the government。
Especially since 1983, massive soil and water conservation measures had implemented in the
catchment, the underlying surface was remarkably changed. The progress of the soil and
water conservation was rapidly, its’ conservation progress, quality as well as the survival rate
of the conservation measures were advanced at large. Therefore the soil erosion was
controlled at a certain extent, the ecological environment was also improved and the
characteristics of the water and sediment loading were changed. So we select Wuding River
basin as the research site.
In this study, we analyzed the historical causes of the soil and water loss in the study area
---- Wuding River basin where typical small watershed management was the basic means to
recover the eco-system. We analyzed the process of soil and water conservation and the land
use/cover change, and also their impact on the runoff of the basin on the inter-annual scale.  Moreover, the periodic sediment of the runoff of Wuding River basin and the impact of
human activities were analyzed. The main research results are in the following:
(1) There were deeply historical causes for the severe soil and water loss in the Wuding
River basin. First, the continuously growing population in historical period was the root cause.
Second the destruction of forest vegetation is the direct cause. Agricultural civilization and
nomadic civilizations competition, war and the backward agricultural techniques had
important impact on the evolution of soil and water loss in the historical period in Wuding
River basin.
(2) Government and the people were intensively and continuously invested in
management the ecosystem in Wuding River basin where carried out the harnessing of the
key small watershed. From 1984 to 2006, a total investment of 1.167 billion Yuan was
accumulated invested for the eco-system management of Wuding River basin in Shannxi
Provinc, of which the government invested 20.83% of total investment, public investment
accounted for 79.17%. The masses were the main investment account. During that time, 1.294
million hm2 new areas were built for soil and water conservation in the key small watershed.
During the measures the proportion of economic forest area increases every year. Significant
ecological, economic and social benefits were made from the soil and water conservation
measures in Wuding River basin. People’s income increased from 178 Yuan per capita in
1984 to 1656.25 Yuan in 2006. The ecosystem service value of the soil and water
conservation increased gradually.
(3) The land use change of the Wuding River basin was studied using remote sensing
technology. The results showed that the land use types changed a lot in this area in the past 30
years. The farmland increased during the earlier stage and decreased during the later stage
impacted by the policies and of human activity. Forest increased by 3.11% in the period. Land
use dynamical degree in the three periods of 1975-1986, 1986-1997, 1997-2006 were 2.03%,
1.94%, 2.22% respectively. The dynamical degree is gradually stabilizing with the gradual
adjustment of land use structure.
(4) We tested the runoff and sediment loading of the six hydrological stations in the
Wuding River basin used Mann-Kendall and Sperman method. The results showed that strong
downward trends were detected in the runoff and sediment loading series in the past 50 years.
The change points were detectd using Pettitt test mehod. Results showed that runoff and  sediment loading of every hydrological station which we tested in the Wuding River basin
had significant changed point. The runoff of Baijiachuan hydrological station which controls
the whole basin had the changed point in 1973 and the sediment loading series in 1971. Then
we used the Flow-Duration Curve method analyzed the frequency characteristics of runoff
and sediment loading character. The results showed that runoff and sediment loading of all the
hydrological stations had significant decreasing trend at the same frequency. The runoff
discharge of the Baijiachuan hydrological station at the low, mean percentile and high
reduced by -35.3%, -35.0% and -36.0% respectively, the sediment loading reduced by 59.3%,
68.0% and 55.5%. Human activities especially the soil and water conservation measures were
the major reasons that casued the decrease of runoff and sediment loading. The different types
of soil and water conservation measures and control degree were the reasons that lead to the
different mutation time and variation degree.
(5) We used the wavelet analysis method analyzed the periodic variation and its
changing features of precipitation, runoff and sediment loading in Wuding River basin. The
roles of human activites were analyzed too. Rusults showed that precipitation, runoff and
sediment loading have significant periodicity and their sizes are approximate. The main
period of precipitation is about 15.5 years while the runoff and sediment loading is about 22
years. On the three-year scale, human activities played an important role in the periodic
variation of runoff and sediment loading. The phase of precipitation, runoff and sediment
loading is synchronous during 1950s, while the three hydrological sequences tend to disorder
from lata 1960s to 1970s, then its turned to synchronize again since 1980s. On the 12-year
scale, precipitation, runoff and sediment loading cycle phase were significantly different in
1960s and 1970s, while in 1980s, they tended to synchronize again. At the 23-year large scale,
the precipitation- runoff cycle phase was basic synchronization, but lag in sediment loading.
The impact of human activities on runoff and sediment loading weakened with the sacale
increased. The analysis of human activities showed that the water and soil conservation
projects and other large dam construction which were built in Wuding River basin in 1960s
and 1970s may direct reasons that lead to the changes in runoff, precipitation and sediment
loading cycle phases, while the corresponding factors of social policy was the driving factors
of the hydrological cycle changes.
(6) We estimated the influence of human activities on the annual runoff and sediment  loading used precipatition-runoff and precipation-sediment loading statistical model. The
results showed the contribution rate of human activities were 75.00% and 79.58% for the
annual runoff and sediment loading changes compared with pre-treatment. The human
activities were being the major factor that caused the change of runoff and sediment loading.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8869
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟 强. 人类活动对无定河流域水土流失演变的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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