ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
库布齐沙漠土地荒漠化动态变化与旅游开发研究
崔琰
Subtype博士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword荒漠化 库布齐沙漠 沙漠旅游规划 沙产业
Abstract

荒漠化是当今人类社会共同面临的一个重大环境问题。库布齐沙漠地区历史
上曾经是森林茂密,草原肥美之地,由于战乱和滥砍、滥垦、滥牧,原始植被遭
到破坏,造成当地荒漠化日益严重。日益扩大的荒漠化问题是制约区域经济发展
的主要生态问题,也是造成环境恶化、农牧民生活贫困的重要原因。虽然国家十
分重视这一地区的荒漠化防治工作,经过多年不懈的努力,取得了一定的成果,
但由于人口过多,牲畜超载,管理不力等原因,荒漠化问题依旧严峻。库布齐沙
漠地区是生态脆弱区,也是经济欠发达区域和少数民族分布区,该区域能否得到
很好发展,不但关系到农民的脱贫致富,更关系到区域环境改善、民族团结和社
会稳定。认真调查研究本区荒漠化分布现状和动态变化趋势,对于荒漠化治理,
具有重要的理论和现实意义。本文以库布齐沙漠地区荒漠化研究对象,通过调查
研究区荒漠化现状及其演变机制和分析总结库布齐沙漠地区荒漠化治理途径及
其存在的问题,结果表明库布齐沙漠地区生态脆弱、环境容量小,频繁的人类活
动干扰,加速了沙漠生态系统的退化。为了从根本上治理治理荒漠问题、巩固治
理成果,除了一般的工程、生物措施外,还需要消除不合理人类活动产生的根源,
维持生态系统与人文环境的动态平衡,沙漠旅游作为一种可持续发展的途径,对
于研究区的荒漠化治理具有积极的意义。取得的主要研究结果如下:
(1)在对研究区地质、地貌、土壤、气候、水文、植被资料的收集、整理、
分析基础上,认为库布齐沙漠地区的地质地貌条件、土壤类型、气候状况、水文
条件决定了其生态环境的脆弱性,极易发生荒漠化。通过对最近18 年来研究区
的十个时相的TM 影像数据的解译,得到了研究区不同时段的荒漠化等级分布
图。从荒漠化面积变化、荒漠化发展速率、荒漠化转移特征、荒漠化等级的空间
变化等方面分析了研究区荒漠化的动态变化。结果表明从1989 年以来荒漠化总
面积减少的趋势很明显,荒漠化防治成效显著,2002 年达到最低值(77.89%)
后,在研究区自然条件未发生较大变化的情况下,荒漠化出现了反复现象,2007年荒漠化面积再次上升到83.72%。通过对荒漠化等级的空间变化分析,发现黄
河沿岸大部分地区荒漠化趋势得到了逆转,而研究区南部沙漠腹地、人口密度较
大的东南部以及海子周边荒漠化程度有所增大,人类不合理的经营行为,使得一
些已经得到治理的荒漠化土地重新退化为荒漠化土地。
(2)通过分析研究区的治沙产业现状及其存在的问题,探索了以发展旅游
业开发治理荒漠的治沙产业模式,认为发展旅游业可以促进研究区产业结构优
化、创造新的就业机会,解决当地居民就业生存等方面的困难,为荒漠化治理提
供资金,维持荒漠化治理成果,从而促进生态建设,以生态建设带动旅游业,通
过对荒漠区旅游资源的限制性开发,让沙漠、湿地旅游成为保护自然环境与经济
发展的新式治沙的双赢产业,从而实现区域经济可持续发展。
(3)依据景观生态学理论、美学理论、生态经济学理论和可持续发展理论对
研究区沙漠生态旅游资源优势和发展前景进行了分析评价。在系统调查的基础
上,建立了研究区旅游规划空间数据库,运用层次分析法,对库布奇沙漠地区的
七星湖景区进行了旅游资源的评价。采用SWOT分析法对旅游区的区域旅游业资
源优势、区位优势、旅游业发展的机遇和挑战、开发建设条件进行了综合分析和
评价;借助GIS的空间分析和网络分析工具,采用空间距离递减规律、旅游竞争
态和引力模型,对景区的客源市场进行了等级划分,进而结合统计资料,对客源
市场的分布和规模进行了预测。
(4)在上述分析评价基础上,将公园定位为世界一流的沙漠会展度假目的地
与体育竞技胜地,以及世界级的沙漠综合治理数字化示范园区。再结合景区的地
形状况、旅游资源分布特点、交通区位、目标市场等因素,综合考虑景区的战略
开发模式,对景区进行空间格局区划后,又对不同发展定位的区域进行了分区规
划和重点支撑项目的概念性规划研究,最后提出了实现景区可持续发展的监控措
施。

Other Abstract

Desertification is a common major environmental problem currently confronted by
human society. Kubuqi desert in history used to be an area with forest and grassland.
Due to warfare and excessive felling, farming, and grazing, the original vegetation
cover has been destroyed, resulting in severe desertification. The growing
desertification is the main ecological problem restricting regional economic
development, also responsible for the deteriorating environment and poverty of local
farmers and herdsmen. While the state attach great importance to desertification
prevention and control work, some achievements have been made after years of
efforts, but the work is still tough because of overpopulation, animal overloading,
incompetent management, etc. Kubuqi desert regions are ecologically fragile, but also
economically underdeveloped and ethnic minority distribution areas. To handle well
the relationship, not only relates to the alleviation of poverty, but also relates to the
regional environment improvement, national unity and social stability. It provides
important theoretical and practical basis for desertification control to study the current
distribution of desertification and trends of its change. The paper integrated current
situation of Kubuqi desert and its control measures as research object, evaluated
desertification and its mechanisms, analyzed and summarized approaches of
desertification control and its problems, explored sustainable means for regional
development. The major findings are as follows:
(1) Based on analysis of the collected geology, geomorphology, soil, climate,
hydrology, vegetation data, the regional natural conditions in Kubuqi determine its
ecological fragility, vulnerable to desertification. Selecting recent 18 years multi
temporal TM image data of study areas, by the interpretation of the images, different
periods of desertification grade distribution maps have been obtained. Desertification  dynamic process was analyzed in terms of desertification area change, the
development rate, transfer characteristics; spatial changes of desertification levels.
The results show an obvious downward trend of total desertification area since 1989.
In view of the spatial variations of desertification levels, the desertification is reversed
in most areas along the main course of Yellow River, but increased in southeastern,
southern desert hinterland, as well as the surrounding of Haizi(lakes). It is obvious
that since the 1990s, this region has achieved remarkable progresses in combating
desertification and desertification levels decreased. The results indicate that frequent
human activities will speed up the desert ecosystem degradation and deterioration of
Kubuqi desert where environmental capacity is small.
(2) Based on the analysis of existing desert control industry and problems, an
industrial desert control model is proposed, which combines desert development and
tourism industry. In addition to general engineering, biological measures, the root
causes of irrational human activities should be eliminated in order to maintenance
dynamic balance of ecological systems and human environment. The desert area is
rich in tourism resources, the tourism and ecological construction can help with each
other forward. By restrictive tourism development in desert area, let desert tourism as
a win-win industry with nature conservation and economic development, in order to
improve regional sustainable economic development.
(3) Ecotourism planning has been discussed, on the basic theories including
landscape ecology, aesthetic, ecological economy, sustainable development .GIS
databases of tourism planning in the study area have been established, using analytic
hierarchy process (AHP) method, the evaluation of Seven Star Lake scenic area
tourism resources were conducted. SWOT method was adopted in comprehensive
analysis and evaluation of tourism development conditions, in analysis of regional
tourism resources and location advantages, as well as the opportunities and challenges
of tourism development. Based on GIS spatial and network analysis tools, using the
law of diminishing spatial distance, travel competition and gravity model, tourist
market was classified. And then combined with statistical information the market has
been predicted.
(4)On analytical basis, the park is positioned as a world-class desert conference  exhibition and athletic resorts, a world-class comprehensive digital desert
demonstration garden. According to the plan area terrain conditions, distribution of
tourism resources, traffic location, target market and other factors, considering the
park's strategic development pattern, spatial patterns planning was made for the whole
area and zoning planning for different regions, while conceptual planning for key
projects, also put forward scheme of monitoring system planning to achieve
sustainable development.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8862
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
崔琰. 库布齐沙漠土地荒漠化动态变化与旅游开发研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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