ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
基于GIS 的区域水土流失过程模拟研究
姚志宏
Subtype博士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword区域水土流失 土壤侵蚀模型 地理信息系统 土壤含水量 模拟
Abstract

区域水土流失过程研究对认识土壤侵蚀对环境要素的影响、理解全球变化与区域
土壤侵蚀关系具有重要意义,而且能为水土流失治理的宏观规划和区域环境问题决策
提供支持。本论文在对区域水土流失过程理论分析和其影响因子分析的基础上,完善
了已有的区域水土流失模型的算法,探索了区域尺度上土壤含水量的估算方法,并在
ArcGIS环境和.NET Framework2.0下,用C#语言开发了计算机模型系统,在试验流域
应用,完成了区域水土流失过程模拟。主要研究结论如下:
(1)探索了区域水土流失模型中土壤含水量的计算方法。考虑到在较大尺度流
域影响土壤含水量的气候因子(气温)、土壤因子(容重)、植被因子(土地利用)和
地形因子(坡向、地形湿度指数),在GIS支持下,建立藉河示范区土壤含水量模拟
方程,回归效果显著。将样点的模拟值和实测值进行分析,得到所有测点模拟值的平
均误差为0.105。结果表明,利用地形湿度指数、坡向、土地利用、降水、气温和土
壤容重等,以实测的土壤含水量数据为基础,可以建立模型并模拟土壤水分,作为土
壤前期含水量用来支持模型中径流的估算;
(2) 完善了区域水土流失过程模型的主要算法设计。考虑土壤前期含水量、蒸
发、雨滴溅蚀、土壤粘结力和不同产流机制等,完善了区域水土流失中降雨产流过程、
侵蚀产沙过程的算法。并在计算机模型系统和GIS支持下完成降雨产流、侵蚀产沙和
径流泥沙物质汇集过程的计算。
(3) 完成了试验区水土流失过程的模拟。利用藉河示范区2005 年7 月份数据,
采用了不同分辨率、不同时间步长对模型进行测试,结果表明模型设计时的各个模块
都能够达到预定功能,输出图形都能反映藉河示范区侵蚀特征,且空间格局和结构都符合实际情况,宏观上主要受土地利用和气候特征影响,微观上主要受地形微起伏影
响。将模型应用于藉河示范区,得到2005 年藉河示范区汛期的总径流量、侵蚀产沙
量分别为为6.73*108 m3 和6.74×106t ,径流模数和侵蚀模数分别为9.48×104
m3/km2.a 、2978t/km2.a 。模拟结果和实际水土流失情况较为符合。

Other Abstract

Studying the dynamic process of soil and water loss at regional scale was of
great importance to understanding the effects of soil erosion on environmental factors and
the relationship between global change and regional soil erosion. Meanwhile, it could
provide the basis for governmental planning and decision-making in soil and water
conservation. This study made improvement for Regional Soil and Water Loss Model,
explored the estimation methods of soil moisture and developed a computer module system
under ArcGIS environment and .NET Framework2.0, using C# programming language
based on theory analysis of soil erosion process and its influence factors. The result was
applied in watersheds and regional soil and water loess process was modeled. The results
were as follows:
(1) Explored the estimation methods of regional soil water content. Considering the
climatic factors (temperature), soil factors (soil bulk density), vegetation factor(land
use)and terrain factor(topographic wetness index, slope aspect), the water moisture was
simulated based on GIS, and the regression results were significant. By comparison, the
average error between simulated value and the surveyed value was 0.105, which means the
simulation accuracy was high. The result showed that the soil moisture could be modeled
based on surveyed soil moisture data considering topographic wetness index, slope aspect,
land use, rainfall, and temperature and soil bulk density. Modeled soil moisture could be
used in estimation of runoff in Regional Soil and Water Loss Model as antecedent soil
moisture.  (2) Algorithm design of Regional Soil and Water Loss Model was improved. This
research considered antecedent soil moisture, evaporation, raindrop detachment , soil
cohesion and different runoff producing mechanisms et al , improved algorithms of the
rainfall-runoff process and the soil erosion and sediment yield process in regional soil and
water loss. Supported by GIS and computer model system, the process of runoff, sediment,
and accumulation were completed.
(3) Completed the simulation of regional soil and water loss process in research areas.
The model was tested based on data in Jihe River demonstration zone in July 2005 by
using different resolution and time step. The results showed that all of the modules
designed can function well. The output maps could characterize the soil erosion in Jihe
River demonstration zone properly; the spatial pattern and structure depicted by the map
were accordant with the practical situation. The soil erosion in Jihe River was mainly
influenced by land using and climatic factors at macro scale, and by terrain microrelief at
micro scale. The model was applied in Jihe River demonstration zone. The calculated
results of the total runoff and sediment were 6.73 billion m3 and 6.74×106 t , and the
modulus of runoff and modulus of erosion were 9.48×104m3/km2.a and 2978t/km2.a
respectively in Jihe River demonstration zone. The simulation results were comparatively
accordant with the practical situation.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8859
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
姚志宏. 基于GIS 的区域水土流失过程模拟研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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