ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
雨水安全集蓄水窖水质变化规律的初步研究
赵文君
Subtype硕士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword雨水集蓄 水窖 水质 雨水集蓄利用模式
Abstract

我国许多贫困劣质水地区,存在地表水为苦咸水、地下水为高氟水的现状,严重
制约了该地区经济社会的发展,利用水窖集蓄雨水已成为解决劣质水贫困地区饮水困
难的重要手段,具有巨大的经济和社会意义。在不同形式的水窖集蓄雨水得到广泛应
用的同时,处于研究薄弱环节的水窖水质问题也越来越受到各界的关注。本研究针对
水窖集蓄雨水解决农村饮水安全中出现的水质问题,对不同材质的水窖贮水、贮存不
同的水源水、农村生活型水窖水等进行长期监测,以国家饮用水质量标准为依据,分
析各水质指标的变化情况,研究各水窖贮水的水质变化过程。初步得出以下结论:
(1)不同材质水窖贮存水水质变化特征不同。水泥砂浆水窖整个过程pH 值偏
高、浊度值一直保持较低;橡塑水窖在贮存中pH值降低、COD值升高;固化土水窖
除浊度值前期偏高外,其他指标整体较好。除橡塑水窖水质保质时间较短,其余材质
水窖均呈现初期水质难确定波动较大,后期逐渐趋于稳定的趋势,符合饮水标准,实
际采用时应因地制宜。
(2)贮存不同水源水水质变化规律。在杨凌试验区,地下水、雨水初始值均能
达到较好水平,符合饮水标准;贮存期间地下水水质比较稳定,贮存雨水在15 天左
右可到达一个整体较优的稳定状态。不同水源水基本能达到饮用水标准,但水源水初
始水质直接关系着水质变化的进程。浊度低对后续水的自净及消毒作用有重要意义,
且能有效减少伴随着的微生物的数量。水窖净化程度的大小与水质初始状况有关系
外,还与水窖材质本身,施工工艺等有关。
(3)修建人工集流场是贫困劣质水地区农村生活型用水安全的重要保障。在定
边试验区,地表水多项指标超标,表现明显的苦咸水特征,且地下水为高氟水,雨水
具有各离子含量低的特点,使其成为最优的饮用水水源。修建集流场并保持集流场的
干净卫生前提下,结合当地降水量、风力条件等特点,确定该地区安全集蓄雨水时间
配置,便可不设沉沙池情况下,有效实现水量和水质双保障。(4)“人工集流场+蓄水装置+用前净化+饮水利用”庭院集雨人畜饮水模式对
水质要求较严格,其特征是:修建专门人工集流场和饮用前净化两项措施可保证水质
的安全。而“屋面、场院、道路、荒坡集流+沉沙池+水窖+作物利用”集雨灌溉利用
模式,通常为非人工集流场而泥沙含量大,修建过滤沉沙设施以保证水窖水质满足灌
概要求是其显著特征。

Other Abstract

In many rural areas of our country, rainwater becomes the only drinking water
resource for the life due to the characteristics of bitter and salty for surface water and
typical high-fluorine for groundwater. Storage and utilization of rainwater by cellars is an
important way to solve the drinking water problem in some areas of the deficiency of water
resource, and it has great social-economic effects. With the large-scale application of the
cellar in solving the rural drinking water safety, the water quality of cellars has received
much attention. To solve the problem of water quality in storage and utilization of
rainwater, this paper analyzed the variation of storage water quality of different material
cellar、different cellar storage water sources and cellar water used for rural areas by
long-time monitor, based on the new National Standards for Drinking water. The results
obtained are described as follows:
(1) The changes of storage water quality of different materials water cellars were
different. The turbidity of cement mortar plastering cellar kept low, while the pH values
was high during the storage process; pH value of rubber-plastic cellar decreased but the
COD value increased; the other indicators of solidified soil cellar were better except the
high turbidity in initial stage. Beside rubber-plastic cellar storage time was short, the rest
material cellar presented that storage rainwater fluctuated greatly in early time, while in
long-term storage period, water quality indexes become stable equilibrium gradually, and
all can basically meet the standards of drinking water. Practical application should be
adapted to local conditions.
(2) Impact on water quality of storing different water sources by cellars. In Yangling,
the water quality index values of groundwater and rainwater were low and met the drinking
standard; In storage process, groundwater quality was better and stable; 15 days cellar
rainwater can reach an overall optimum of stability. Cellar storage of different sources
water could reach the drinking water standard the initial water quality had a direct  relationship with the process of water quality variation. Low turbidity rainwater had played
a significant role on water purification、disinfection and the limiting the growth of
micro-organisms. The purification degree was related with the initial conditions, also with
the cellar materials and construction techniques etc.
(3) Building artificial catchment is an important guarantee to water safety in poor
inferior water rural area. In Dingbian study area, surface water had many indexes exceed
the National standard, which showed the characteristics of bitty and salty, and groundwater
was typical high-fluorine water, so rainwater is the best choice of drinking water source.
Under the condition of building catchment and maintain clean sanitation, combined with
the local rainfall, wind conditions, etc., determine the rainwater harvesting time allocation,
that not only can ensure the water quality and quantity, but also have not the desilting
basin.
(4) The basic mode of safe rainwater harvesting was artificial catchment+storage
device+purification technology+utilization for drinking. The mode had strict requirements
on water quality, so purification before utilization, and reaching Nation standard were
important. Collection for irrigation utilization could use the catchment of roof、yard、roads、
wasteland + desilting basin + cellar + crop utilization. When the condition was that nonartificial
catchment and high sediment content, it needed to build desilting basin to ensure
the cellar quality to satisfy the irrigation requirement.

MOST Discipline Catalogue水土保持与荒漠化防治
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8858
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵文君. 雨水安全集蓄水窖水质变化规律的初步研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
赵文君毕业论文2010.6-4.pdf(801KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[赵文君]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[赵文君]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[赵文君]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.