ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
榆林黄土区山地枣树开花坐果期需水信息研究
张 平
Subtype硕士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword土壤水势 适宜指标 植物生理指标 梨枣 榆林
Abstract

开花坐果期是枣树需水临界期,通过分析枣树需水信息可以为合理灌溉提供
生理技术支撑。本文在对国内外相关研究现状及存在问题进行分析和总结的基础
上,在陕北红枣节水示范基地,以小区内三年生梨枣为研究对象,监测不同土壤
水势处理条件下枣树茎直径微变化、叶水势、气孔导度的变化,并结合气象要素
分析能诊断枣树开花坐果期水分信息的适宜指标,依据该指标与土壤水势的关
系,确定该期枣树合理的土壤水势阈值,并用不同土壤水势处理的产量来验证土
壤水势阈值的实践意义。设置四个土壤水势处理,即:T0:土壤水势控制在-33~
-25kPa 范围内;T1:试验开始时进行灌水,使土壤水势达到-10 kPa,之后不再
灌水,土壤水势慢慢接近T0 处理,最后进入干旱胁迫;T3:土壤水势控制在-60~
-100kPa;T4:土壤水势控制在-100~-200kPa。初步得出以下结论:
(1)不同土壤水势处理下,三年生梨枣林地30cm 深处土壤水势日变化过
程有相似的变化规律,土壤水势越低,日降低幅度越大。60cm 深处也有类似的
变化规律,但是同日同一处理60cm 深处土壤水势日变化曲线较30cm 深处变化
平坦,日降低幅度较小。60cm 深处土壤水势整体高于同一处理30cm 深处土壤
水势,这种现象一方面是受外界蒸发能力的影响,还有一方面就是枣树根系主要
分布在30cm 处,使得30cm 处枣树耗水大于60cm 深处。
(2)试验期间T0(土壤水势控制在-33~-25kPa 范围内)、T2(土壤水势控
制在-100~-60kPa 范围内)和T3(土壤水势控制在-200~-100kPa 范围内)灌水
次数分别为4、2、2,平均土壤水势分别为-28kPa、-80 kPa、-150 kPa。四个处
理间土壤水势有显著的差异,和T0 处理相比,T1 处理土壤水势范围可划分为3
个阶段:显著高于T0,持续15 天;与T0 无显著差异,持续16 天,显著低于
T0,持续19 天。
(3)枣树茎直径日变化有着很好的周期性,日变化曲线近似呈“U”型,日最
大值出现在上午8:00 左右,日最小值出现在下午6:00 左右。在枣树未受水分
胁迫影响时,枣树茎直径日最大值能复原并伴有生长趋势;在受到水分胁迫后,茎直径日最大值不能恢复到前一日最大值。
当土壤水势发生变化时,枣树茎直径最大日收缩量、茎直径日变化最大值、
气孔导度和正午叶水势都基本上作出相应的反应,但是综合比较得出茎直径最大
日收缩量是梨枣开花坐果期最适宜的指导灌溉的指标,因为与其他的三个指标相
比,它是第一个对水分胁迫做出反应,并且变异性较小。
参考作物蒸发蒸散量和大气正午水汽压亏缺可以代表大气的干旱程度,茎直
径最大日收缩量与参考作物蒸发蒸散量和大气正午水汽压亏缺的关系表明径最
大日收缩量还可以间接表示气象要素对植物水分的影响。
总之,在此试验条件下,径最大日收缩量是诊断枣树开花坐果期水分信息最
适宜的指标。
(4)在径最大日收缩量信号强度值与土壤水势关系曲线中,以径最大日收缩
量标准值等于1 为临界值,确定出开花坐果期枣树适宜土壤水势为-25~-40kPa。
不同土壤水势处理条件下枣树产量间有显著差异。T0 处理(土壤水势控制
在-33~-25kPa 范围内)平均土壤水势-28kPa,介于-25 kPa 至-40 kPa 之间,枣树
产量最高,T2 处理(土壤水势控制在-100~-60kPa 范围内)次之,T3 处理(土
壤水势控制在-200~-100kPa 范围内)产量最小。据此可以说明,我们设定的适
宜土壤水势阈值有现实意义,可以指导枣树灌溉实践。

Other Abstract

Anthesis and fruit setting periods are critical time of water requirement for jujube.
It can provide physiological technology for reasonable irrigation to analyze water
requirement information of jujube. Based on analysis of the present status and
existing problems of relative research in home and abroad, this text took the three
years old pear jujube under four water levels, namely T0 (-33~-25kPa), T1
(irrigating once at beginning), T2(-60~-100kPa) and T3(-100~-200kPa) in jujube
water-saving demonstration located in Loess Plateau as the object of study to measure
stem diameter micro-change, leaf water potential and gas conductance. Taken
meteorological factors in account, the suitable indicator diagnosing water information
of jujube in anthesis and fruit setting periods was analyzed, based on the relationship
between the indicator and soil matrix potential, reasonable soil matrix potential
threshold was defined. Further, the practical significance of the threshold was verified
by the production under different soil matrix potentials. The preliminary conclusions
are as follows:
(1) Under different soil matrix potentials, the daily change of soil matrix potential
were similar in 30cm soil depth in three years old pear jujube woodland, and
increased the daily reduced extension of soil matrix potential with the decrease of soil
matrix potential. The daily change of soil matrix potential were similar in 60cm soil
depth showed similar regular as that of 30cm, but daily change curve of soil matrix
potential in 60cm was platter than that in 30cm, with higher soil matrix potential and
lower daily reduced extension, on one hand, which can attribute to evaporation
condition, on the other hand, jujube root mainly distributed in 30cm, where jujube
consumed more water than that in 60cm.
(2) During the experiment, four, two and two times irrigation were conducted in
T0(-33~-25kPa), T2(-100~-60kPa) and T3 (-200~-100kPa) treatments, with
average soil matrix potential of -28, -80, and -150 kPa respectively. There were
significant differences of soil matrix potential between treatments. Compared with T0  treatment(-33~-25kPa), the soil matrix potential in T1 (-10~) could be divided into
three stages, which were significantly higher than that T0(-33~-25kPa) lasting 15
days, similar with T0 (-33~-25kPa)lasting 16 days and significantly lower than
T0(-33~-25kPa) lasting 19 days.
(3) The diurnal changes of jujube stem diameter have periodicity. The diurnal
variation curve was similar to "U" type, with maximum around 8am and minimum
around 6pm. If without water stress, maximum of stem diameter can be restored with
growth trends; while, the maximum of stem diameter can not be restored to that of the
day before with water stress.
When the soil matrix potential changed, trunk maximum diameter shrinkage,
maximum trunk diameter, gas conductance and midday leaf water potential all could
showed reflection accordingly, but by comprehensive comparison, it can conclude that
maximum diameter shrinkage was the most suitable indicator conducting irrigation of
jujube in anthesis and fruit setting periods, mainly because it could respond to water
stress quickly and noticeably with smaller variability compared to other three
indicators.
Reference crop evapotranspiration and midday vapor press deficit could behave of
the drought degree of climate. The relationships of maximum diameter shrinkage and
reference crop evapotranspiration, midday vapor press deficit indicated that maximum
diameter shrinkage could also show the effect of meteorological factors on plant
status.
In all accounts, maximum diameter shrinkage was the suitable indictor diagnosing
the water requirement information of jujube in anthesis and fruit setting periods in the
experiment.
(4) In the curve of maximum diameter shrinkage signal intensity and soil matrix
potential, by measuring whether the maximum diameter shrinkage signal intensity
was one or not, the suitable soil matrix potential values of pear-jujube in anthesis and
setting periods was identified between -40 kPa and -25kPa. And the values higher
than -25kPa was named jujube luxurious soil matrix potentials.
There were significant differences of jujube productions under different soil matrix
potential conditions. In T0 treatment(-33~-25kPa), where soil matrix potential were
between -25 and -40 kPa, with average value of -28kPa, jujube production was
highest, production in T2 treatment (-100~-60kPa) was a few smaller than that in T0
treatment(-33~-25kPa), while production in T3 treatment (-200~-100kPa) was
smallest, which make clear that the suitable soil matrix potential defined in the
experiment has practical importance and can indicate jujube irrigation

MOST Discipline Catalogue水土保持与荒漠化防治
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8857
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张 平. 榆林黄土区山地枣树开花坐果期需水信息研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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