ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
典型过滤器水力学特性及其对泥沙处理能力研究
叶成恒
Subtype硕士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword过滤器 含沙水 局部水头损失 泥沙分离
Abstract

过滤器是保证滴灌系统正常运行的关键设备,能有效清除灌溉水中各种杂质,避
免灌水器堵塞,提高滴灌系统的灌水质量和运行效率。本文以新疆引河灌区滴灌系统
为研究对象,通过田间模拟试验,对滴灌工程中常用的离心+筛网(80 目、100 目和
120 目)和离心+叠片(75 目和120 目)两类五种组合过滤系统的水力性能及其泥沙
处理能力进行了分析研究。主要研究结论如下:
(1)过滤器局部水头损失与流量关系密切,随着流量的增加,水头损失迅速增
大;过滤器局部水头损失与含沙量关系密切,在过滤器未发生严重堵塞前,随含沙量
的增大,局部水头损失增大;在泥沙颗粒组成相同的条件下,随着泥沙含量的增加,
粗颗粒泥沙量增加,筛网及叠片过滤器的堵塞明显,系统适宜允许的运行时间缩短,
堵塞程度与适宜的运行时间成负相关;在相同条件下,筛网过滤器局部水头损失比叠
片过滤器小,运行时间比叠片过滤器长。局部水头损失及流量随运行时间呈先缓慢后
急剧变化的变化规律。对于筛网过滤器和叠片过滤器,当局部水头损失达到2~3m 和
4~5m 范围值时,堵塞后效应明显,水头损失急剧增大,流量减小,影响系统的正常
运行,因此应及时对过滤器的筛网和叠片进行冲洗。
(2)五种过滤系统的泥沙分离总效率总体特点为二级过滤器目数越高,总效率
越高。在试验条件下,级效率的总体特点为小于50μm 的级效率较低,均小于10%;
大于100μm 的级效率均为100%;在50~100μm 范围的差异较大,其中离心+120 目
叠片>离心+120 目筛网>离心+100 目筛网>离心+75 目叠片>离心+80 目筛网。从
对泥沙的分离效果可以得出叠片过滤器的泥沙处理能力优于筛网过滤器。
(3)在试验条件下,经五种过滤系统过滤后泥沙的d50 差异不大,在6~8μm 之
间变化。离心叠片过滤器过滤后的d98 总体比离心筛网过滤器的小,均小于40μm,
基本能满足滴灌水质要求。

Other Abstract

Filter is the key equipment in the irrigation system, which can remove all kinds of
impurities to avoid clogging of emitter. It can improve irrigation quality and operation
efficiency. Taking the irrigation system of irrigation district in Xinjiang as study object,
this paper studied on the hydraulic characteristics and sediment removal capacity of five
filtration systems which is composed of two kinds of filters, such as hydrocyclone with
screen filter(80,100,120 mesh) and hydrocyclone with disc filter(75,120 mesh) . The
results obtained are described as follows:
(1) The local head loss of filters is closely related to flow rate. The local head loss
increases with the flow rate increasing. The local head loss of filters is closely related to
sediment content. With the sediment content increasing, the local head loss of filters
increased before the filters aren’t clogged seriously. Under the same composition of
sediment particles, with the sediment content increasing, the amount of the big sediment
particles increases. Therefore screen and disc filters are clogged obviously, and the
allowable running time of system is shortened. Degree of clogging and allowable running
time negatively correlates. In the same condition, the local head loss of screen filters is
smaller than disc filters, but the running time of screen filters is longer than disc filters.
The local head loss and the flow rate of filters change slowly then rapidly with running
time increasing. When the local head loss of screen filters and disc filters reach 2~3m and
4~5m, the effect of the clogging becomes obvious, then the head loss begins to increase
rapidly, and the flow rate begins to reduce rapidly, that affects the normal operation of
system, therefore the screen and disc of filters should be flashed.
(2) The general characteristics of the total separation efficiency in five filtration
syst  s manifestation: the greater mesh, the greater total separation efficiency. Under
experiment condition,the general characteristics of the grade efficiency in five filtration  systems is that all the grade efficiency is less than ten percent when the size of sand
particle is less than 50μm, and, that all the grade efficiency is one hundred percent when
the size of sand particle is more than 100μm, that the grade efficiency of five filtration
system has much difference when the size of sand particle between 50μm and 100μm,
mainly manifestations: hydrocyclone-120 mesh disc> hydrocyclone-120 mesh screen>
hydrocyclone-100 mesh screen> hydrocyclone-75 mesh disc> hydrocyclone-80 mesh
screen. In terms of sediment separation effect, the sediment removal capacity of disc filters
is better than screen filters.
(3) Under experiment condition,the d50 of sediment filtered by five filtration systems
have little difference, which are about 6~8μm. The d98 of sediment filtered by disc filters
are smaller than that by screen filters, and all the d98 are less than 40μm, that can meet
requirements of water quality in drip irrigation.

MOST Discipline Catalogue水土保持与荒漠化防治
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8856
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
叶成恒. 典型过滤器水力学特性及其对泥沙处理能力研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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