ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
基于GIS 与遥感的藉河示范区 水土保持效益评价研究
王 琦
Subtype硕士
2010-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword藉河示范区 水土保持效益评价 区域土壤侵蚀评价 生态系统服务功能价 值化
Abstract

黄土高原是世界上土壤侵蚀最严重的地区之一,我国对黄土高原投入大量的人
力、物力和财力进行水土保持治理和研究工作,取得了显著成效。目前,如何用统一
的标准来评价和分析区域水土保持效益成为决策者和研究者共同关注的问题。本文在
GIS 与RS 技术支持下,分析了“黄河水土保持生态工程——甘肃省天水市藉河示范
区项目”实施以来该区水土保持效益各影响因子的变化规律,并结合生态系统服务功
能价值化方法展开评价。主要有以下成果:
(1)建立了区域水土保持效益评价指标体系:基于效益评价指标选取原则,以
“国标”为基础,结合水土保持效益多年研究成果,立足黄土高原,初步提出一套切
实可行的效益评价指标体系。
(2)建立藉河示范区水土保持效益评价因子数据库:以野外调查数据、遥感数
据、已有地图数据、文字材料为数据源,基于GIS,探讨、分析藉河示范区的降水、
植被、地形、土壤、土地利用和水土保持措施等效益影响因子的时空变化特征,并建
立藉河示范区的水土保持效益评价因子数据库。
(3)基于GIS 分析评价藉河示范区土壤侵蚀动态分析:基于GIS,分别采用水
利部土壤侵蚀标准、中国土壤流失方程(CSLE)和区域水土流失模型(RESEM)对
藉河示范区土壤侵蚀动态变化进行了评价分析。
基于水利部土壤侵蚀标准的定性分析表明,藉河示范区的土壤侵蚀以中度为主。
1997 年的土壤侵蚀比较严重,经过治理,2005 年侵蚀减弱,强度、极强度和剧烈分
别减少10%、4.5%和1%。
基于中国土壤流失方程(CSLE)和区域水土流失模型的评价均表明,藉河示范
区土壤侵蚀主要集中在微度和轻度;虽然2005 年的降雨侵蚀力比较大,且降雨是侵
蚀土壤侵蚀的主要因子之一,但是由于藉河示范区治理措施到位,即水土保持措施(工
程措施、林草措施和耕作措施)发挥了巨大作用,与1997 年相比各侵蚀强度面积比
例变化不大。由于区域水土流失本模型目前还没有考虑工程措施对侵蚀的影响,而
2005 年降雨量明显大于1997 年,所以轻度侵蚀模拟结果是显著增长。
(4)探索了NDVI 的尺度变换方法:利用直方图匹配法,以高时间分辨率的SVG  NDVI 数据为参照,对高空间分辨率的ETM NDVI 数据进行变换,获得逐月30m 分
辨率的NDVI 影像。且该方法操作简单,对于水土保持监测工作者而言便于推广。
(5)完成了水土保持生态服务功能计算:结合生态系统服务价值化方法,探讨
了区域水土保持效益的计算方法,分别计算了藉河示范区治理前后的生态服务价值,
编制了藉河示范区生态服务价值图,并分析了治理末期(2005 年)在治理初期(1997
年)措施条件和实际治理末期(2005 年)措施条件下的生态服务价值变化。可知水
土保持实施后增加了区域的物质生产、碳的固定、氧气的释放、水土资源的保持,同
时增加了流域水圈、大气圈、生物圈和土圈的服务功能,改善了流域环境,增加了流
域的生态服务价值。。

Other Abstract

The Loess Plateau is one of the most serious soil erosion regions in the world, where a
large number of manpower and material resources have been poured into soil and water
conservation management and research in the Loess Plateau, and make remarkable
achievements. At present, how to use a unified standard to evaluate and analyze regional
benefits of soil and water conservation has become a common issue for decision-makers
and researchers. With the support of RS and GIS technology, this paper analyzed dynamic
change of factors influencing benefits of soil and water conservation since the
implementation of "The Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Protection Projects of
Yellow River in Tianshui City, Gansu Province ". This research applies ecosystem service
function value methods to evaluation and analysis some benefits of soil and water
conservation. The main conclusions are:
(1) Establishing Parameters for benefit evaluation of region-scale soil and water
conservation. Based on “national standard” and the principle of selecting indicators,
applying ecosystem service function value method, and taking root in the loess plateau,
this paper systematically analyzes the present research situation and problems of the
benefits evaluation of soil and water conservation. And then, the paper suggested a
regional-scale evaluation parameters system.
(2) Establishing the factors database of Jihe Demonstration Zone which influences
benefits of soil and water conservation. The database mainly consists of precipitation,
runoff , vegetation cover, land use, topography map, DEM, soil, thematic maps, remote
sensing image, field landscape pictures, and investigated data of practices of soil and water
conservation.
(3) Evaluating and analyzing the dynamic change of soil erosion. Based on the
Ministry of Water Resources criteria for soil erosion, the erosion lever of Jihe
Demonstration Zone mainly is moderate erosion. And the regional soil erosion decreased  remarkably in 2005. Compared with 1997, the strength erosion, great strength erosion and
violent erosion were reduced by 10%, 10% and 4% respectively.
However, the evaluation based on the Regional Soil Erosion Model and the Chinese
Soil Loss Equation showed that the soil erosion lever of Jihe Demonstration Zone mainly
is micro and mildly erosion. Due to engineering practice factor, there is little variation of
soil erosion based on Chinese Soil Loss Equation. Meanwhile, based on the Regional Soil
Erosion Model, the soil erosion in 2005 was more intensive than it in 1997, due to the
rainfall intensity. Although the vegetation covered much in 2005 than in 1997, the soil
erosion caused by rainfall was far greater than the benefits of plants to reduce sediment,
which led to more serious soil erosion in 2005 than in 1997. This result is opposite to the
soil erosion evaluation of the Ministry of Water Resources. The reason is that the Ministry
of Water Resources of soil erosion standard does not take the effect of rainfall on soil
erosion into account.
(4)Investigating scale changes of NDVI. In this paper, a method is proposed to get
high spatial and temporal resolution NDVI products, by matching the histogram of ETM
NDVI (30 m) to that of SPOT/VEGETATION NDVI product (1 km, one scene every
month). The estimated NDVI products (30 m, one scene per month) are analyzed, based on
several indicators such as statistical characteristics of image, histogram similarity and
image fidelity. The results of this research can be applied to dynamic monitoring and
prediction of the region-scale soil erosion.
(5)Calculating the ecological value of different years in different state of soil and
water conservation based on GIS with the date of climate, soil, topography and land use
and obtained all the map of Jihe Demonstration Zone. This research chose one kind of
ecological service respectively from hydrosphere, soil sphere, biology sphere and
atmosphere to assess impacts of soil and water conservation on environment according to
the progress of ecological service research.

MOST Discipline Catalogue土壤学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8853
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王 琦. 基于GIS 与遥感的藉河示范区 水土保持效益评价研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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