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河北省农业节水对策研究
河北省农业节水对策研究
Subtype硕士
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Keyword河北 农业节水 对策 半旱地
Abstract

河北省是我国缺水最为严重的地区之一,该地区人均水资源量307m3,耕地亩均
211 m3,属于严重的资源性缺水。本研究通过调查河北省水资源状况和农业节水发展
现状,探讨半旱地农业理论,提出河北省农业节水对策和建议,为缓解河北省水资源
紧缺,实现农业的持续发展提供方法和对策。主要研究进展如下:
(1)河北省属于半湿润半干旱地区,干旱指数在1.0-3.0 之间,蒸发能力大于降
雨量。多年平均降雨量为531mm,一般年份无法满足小麦-玉米一年两季作物生育期
耗水需求。由于地表水资源匮乏,河北省80%用水由地下水供给,造成地下水超采现
象比较严重,年均超采50 亿m3。河北省农业用水占总用水量的70%,如何在实现粮
食增产的同时,做到大幅度减少农业用水量,维持地下水采补平衡,是该区农业发展
需要解决的重大问题。
(2)河北省从上世纪80 年代开始,大力发展农业节水,取得了巨大的成就,实
现农业增产增效不增水。但河北省农业节水依然存在用水浪费现象比较普遍、灌溉工
程效率有待提高、对农艺节水技术重视力度不够、农业节水的投入机制没有理顺、农
业节水工程总体标准不高、缺乏农业节水的激励政策、灌区运行管理水平亟待提高等
问题,河北省农业节水仍有较大的潜力可以挖掘。
(3)在对半旱地农业的概念、内涵以及研究内容进一步完善的基础上,认为半旱
地农业是一种新的农业用水形式,通过灌溉节水技术与旱作节水技术的有机结合,更
大限度的提高农业用水效率。提出河北省推行半旱地农业的主要理由:一是该省降雨
量多年平均为530mm,自然降雨无法满足小麦-玉米生产的水分需求,作物高产需要
进行一定的补充灌溉;二是水资源缺乏,地下水长期超采,现有水资源条件难以满足
作物正常灌溉的需求;三是随着地下水资源的减少和日益枯竭,农业用水成本的增加,
许多地方的水浇地已逐渐变成半旱地甚至旱地,发展半旱地农业是河北省农业发展的
必然趋势。
(4)从开源节流两方面提出河北省农业节水对策,如,通过调水,利用污水、微咸水以增加农业可用水量;采用工程节水措施减少输水配水过程中的无效渗漏损失;
采用农艺节水措施减少土壤无效蒸发;优化灌溉制度减少灌溉用水;加大农业用水管
理等。同时提出加大中央财政对农业节水的补贴,加快水价改革力度;积极发展半旱
地农业,在充分利用天然降水的基础上,大量减少灌溉用水;在严重缺水区调整农业
结构和种植制度,严格控制地下水超采;加强节水农业综合技术体系集成研究等建议。

Other Abstract

Hebei is one of the worst water shortage areas of China, Where the per capita water
resources is only 307m3 and per hectare water resources is 3165m3. This research puts
forward the countermeasures and proposals about the agricultural water saving, which is
based on investigating the status of water resources and water saving developments, and
exploring the theory of semi-dryland farming. Here is the conclusion:
(1) Hebei is a semi-humid and semi-arid area, where the drought index is between 1.0
and 3.0 which means the evaporation is more than the rainfall ability. The average annual
rainfall is 531mm which can not meet the water consumption demand of the wheat and
maize. For the reason of the shortage of surface water resources, eighty percent of the
water is made up of groundwater, which causes the excessive exploration that five million
cubic meters of the groundwater is excessively explored every year. Seventy percent of the
water that the whole society used is agricultural water. How to increase the food
production, how to reduce the agricultural water use, and how to maintain the exploration
balance of groundwater, are major issues of the agricultural development.
(2) The agricultural water saving has developed rapidly from 1980. Now, it has
achieved great success that increasing the WUE and food production but not adding
agricultural water use. But, there also have quite a few problems. Such as the extravagant
water use is very common, and the efficiency of the irrigation is needed to be improved,
and the capital input mechanism is indeterminate, and lacking the encouragement policy of
agricultural water saving, and so on. Thus it is possible to improve the WUE of agricultural
water use.
(3) This article describes a new way of agricultural water use which is aiming to
improve the efficiency of agricultural water and combing the dry farming and irrigation
agriculture water saving technologies, and provides the main reason for Hebei to carry out  the semi-dryland farming: firstly, the precipitation of Hebei is 530mm which can not meet
the water consumption demand of the wheat and maize, so that the irrigations is necessary;
secondly, because of the shortage of water resources and the excessive exploration of
groundwater, the existing water resources couldn’t meet the normal demand of irrigation;
thirdly, the semi-drylad farming is a inevitable trend of agricultural development, for some
irrigable lands of Hebei have already become semi-dryland even dry land because of the
water resources shortage .
(4) This article puts forward some countermeasures which is composed of two sides
increasing the source of water resources and reducing the water used, such as, increasing
the available water by transferring water out of the region and using brackish water;
reducing the infiltration loss by engineering water-saving measures; decreasing the
evaporation by agronomy water-saving measures; optimizing the irrigation regime to
dwindle the irrigation water; improving agricultural water management, and so on. And it
also provides several proposals, like, increasing agricultural water saving financial
subsidies, reinforcing the reformation of water pricing system, developing semi-dryland
farming which is aiming to reduce irrigation water that is based on the full using of
precipitation, adjusting the agricultural structure and cropping pattern on the water severe
short area where should control the exploration of groundwater strictly, strengthening the
research of integrated agricultural water-saving technology system, and so on.

MOST Discipline Catalogue水土保持与荒漠化防治
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8849
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
河北省农业节水对策研究. 河北省农业节水对策研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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