ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--2019届毕业生论文
黄土旱塬区长期保护性耕作对玉米产量和土壤水肥效应影响研究
赵晶
Subtype博士
2019-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name农学博士
Keyword长期定位试验 保护性耕作 黄土旱塬区 玉米产量 土壤水分 土壤养分 养分吸收
Abstract

保护性耕作是针对长期传统耕作带来的对土壤结构破坏、引起土壤侵蚀等问题而提出来的一种新型耕作方式。考虑到耕作年限的效应,以及黄土旱塬区的降水特点,本研究以2003年中国科学院黄土高原农业生态试验站开展的保护性耕作定位试验为研究对象,有两种耕作方式,四种覆盖措施,共8个处理,分别为传统耕作、传统耕作地膜覆盖、传统耕作秸秆覆盖、传统耕作地膜+秸秆覆盖、免耕、免耕地膜覆盖、免耕秸秆覆盖、免耕地膜+秸秆覆盖。结合该区域气象资料,系统地从时间尺度上和划分不同降水年型,研究在2007-2016年间黄土旱塬区保护性耕作措施对玉米产量的影响;对土壤剖面水分分布和水分利用效率的影响;对土壤养分含量动态变化特征的影响;对玉米养分吸收特性的影响,主要结论如下:

1. 传统耕作秸秆覆盖和有地膜覆盖的处理整体上提高了百粒重和穗粒数,进而提高了籽粒产量,籽粒产量较传统耕作提高了9.4%-23.8%。其中传统耕作的地膜+秸秆覆盖籽粒产量最高,达到了9381.6 kg hm-2。而免耕和免耕秸秆覆盖降低了百粒重和穗粒数,致使籽粒产量降低了8.3%-11.9%传统耕作条件下的籽粒产量比免耕条件下提高了10.3%2007-2016年间,不同降水年型间不同保护性耕作的籽粒产量变异系数在3.0%-17.7%之间。年际间呈波动性变化。

2. 有秸秆覆盖的处理有利于土壤水分深层补给;同一降水年型下0-300 cm土壤剖面水分分布差异较大;土壤水分消耗-补给深度受降水年份影响较明显。传统耕作覆盖和免耕地膜+秸秆覆盖的水分利用效率较传统耕作提高了9.98%-16.39%,而免耕其余处理降低了水分利用效率,传统耕作条件下的水分利用效率比免耕条件下提高了11.05%。不同降水年型间不同保护性耕作措施水分利用效率的变异系数在0.94%-13.17%之间。在时间尺度上,随着保护性耕作年限的增加,水分利用效率均呈现波动性变化。

3. 有覆盖的土壤有机质含量比传统耕作提高了0.18 g kg-1 -1.32 g kg-1,而免耕的有机质含量降低了0.30 g kg-1传统耕作条件下的有机质含量比免耕条件下降低了0.10 g kg-1有秸秆覆盖的处理土壤全氮和碱解氮含量也均有所提高,全氮含量提高了0.71%-12.27%,碱解氮含量提高了5.00%-19.08%;而免耕的全氮和碱解氮的含量分别降低了1.09%3.14%传统耕作条件下的全氮和碱解氮含量分别比免耕条件下降低了1.93%6.97%。保护性耕作的土壤速效磷含量降低了2.56%-37.25%传统耕作条件下的速效磷含量比免耕条件下提高了21.62%有地膜覆盖的处理也降低了土壤速效钾含量,而秸秆覆盖的速效钾含量提高了7.80%-8.57%传统耕作条件下的速效钾含量比免耕条件下降低了3.22%。不同降水年型间各种保护性耕作措施下的土壤养分含量的变异系数在1.67%-22.24%之间。年际间土壤养分含量均呈波动性变化。

4. 覆盖整体上提高了茎秆、叶片和籽粒的养分吸收量,总吸氮量提高了4.77%-38.74%,总吸磷量提高了21.67%-55.29%,总吸钾量提高了6.35%-39.35%;而免耕降低了各器官的养分吸收量,总吸氮量、总吸磷量和总吸钾量分别降低了16.36%8.65%10.09%传统耕作条件下的植株总吸氮量、总吸磷量和总吸钾量分别比免耕条件下提高了15.10%19.2212.71%传统耕作地膜覆盖和免耕地膜+秸秆覆盖的氮素利用效率分别较传统耕作提高了7.77%7.99%,免耕地膜覆盖和免耕地膜+秸秆覆盖的磷素利用效率分别提高了9.60%9.45%,有地膜覆盖的处理钾素利用效率提高了10.02%-39.62%;而秸秆覆盖的处理和免耕降低了氮磷钾素利用效率。免耕条件下的氮素利用效率和钾素利用效率分别较传统耕作条件下降低了1.83%5.42%,而磷素利用效率提高了11.63%

Other Abstract

Conservation tillage is a new kind of tillage method, which aims at the problems of soil structure destruction and serious soil erosion caused by long-term traditional tillage. Considering the effect of tillage years and the characteristics of precipitation in the Loess Plateau area, the conservation tillage experiment carried out at the Loess Plateau Agro-ecology Test Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from 2003 was taken as the research object. There are two tillage methods and four mulching measures, a total of 8 treatments which are conventional tillage, conventional tillage with plastic-film mulching, conventional tillage with straw mulching, conventional tillage with plastic-film and straw mulching, no-tillage, no-tillage with plastic-film mulching, no-tillage with straw mulching, no-tillage with plastic-film and straw mulching. Combining with the meteorological data of the region, years (2007-2016) of experimental data were summarized and sorted out to systematically study the effects of different conservation tillage measures on 1) maize yield and its growth traits; 2) soil profile water distribution and water use efficiency; 3) the changes of soil nutrient content; 4) the changes of nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency of Maize. Main conclusions are as follows:

1. The conventional tillage with straw mulching and plastic-film mulching increased the 100-grain weight and grain number of maize as a whole, and then increased the grain yield, which increased by 9.4%-23.8% compared with the conventional tillage. Among them, the conventional tillage with plastic-film and straw mulching had the highest grain yield, reaching 9381.6 kg hm-2. However, no-tillage and no-tillage with straw mulching reduced 100-grain weight and grain number, resulting in a decrease in grain yield of 8.3%-11.9%. At the same time, the biological yield of mulching increased by 4.7%-28.3% compared with conventional tillage, while that of no-tillage decreased by 1.4%. The ear length and spike length of no-tillage decreased by 1.9%-2.2%and ear height and plant height of no-tillage decreased by 3.9%-5.8%. From 2007 to 2016, the variation coefficients (CV) of yield and growth traits of maize under different conservation tillage in different precipitation years ranged from 0.4% to 30.8%, which were weak or moderate, while inter-annual variation fluctuated.

2. Straw mulching was beneficial to soil water deep recharge. Under the same mulching measure, no-tillage increased the depth of soil water recharge compared with conservation tillage. At the same time, the water consumption depth of conservation tillage with mulching increased, while that of no-tillage with mulching decreased. In the same precipitation year, the water consumption-recharge depth of soil profile 0-300 cm was significantly different, and the water distribution of soil profile between years was significantly different. The water use efficiency of conservation tillage with mulching and no-tillage with plastic-film and straw mulching increased by 9.98%- 16.39% compared with conservation tillage, while that of the other treatments of no-tillage decreased. The CV of water use efficiency (WUE) under different conservation tillage measures ranged from 0.94% to 13.17% in different precipitation years, mostly with weak variation. On the time scale, WUE fluctuated with the increase of conservation tillage years.

3. The soil organic matter content of mulching increased by 0.18 g kg-1-1.32 g kg-1 compared with conventional tillage, while that of no-tillage decreased by 0.30 g kg-1. The content of soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen with straw mulching also increased, with the total nitrogen content increased by 0.71%-12.27% and the alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen content increased by 5.00%-19.08%, while that of no-tillage decreased by 1.09% and 3.14%, respectively. Soil available phosphorus content in conservation tillage decreased by 2.56% to 37.25%, and soil available potassium content in plastic-film mulching also decreased, while that in straw mulching increased by 7.80%-8.57%. Under the same mulching measure, the available potassium content in no-tillage was 0.84%-5.95% higher than that in conventional tillage. The coefficient of variation of soil nutrient content under different conservation tillage measures in different precipitation years ranged from 1.67%-22.24%, and the organic matter content was weak variation. The other contents were also weak variation without mulching. Many treatments reached moderate variation under mulching, especially the content of available phosphorus. The change of soil nutrient content showed fluctuating change between years.

4. Overall, mulching increased the nutrient absorption of stem, leaf and grain, the total nitrogen absorption increased by 4.77%-38.74%, the total phosphorus absorption increased by 21.67%-55.29%, and the total potassium absorption increased by 6.35% -39.35%. Compared with conventional tillage, no-tillage reduced the nutrient absorption of organs, and the total nitrogen absorption, total phosphorus absorption and total potassium absorption decreased by 16.36%, 8.65% and 10.09%, respectively. Compared with conventional tillage, the nitrogen use efficiency of conventional tillage with plastic-film mulching and no-tillage with plastic-film mulching and straw mulching increased by 7.77% and 7.99%, respectively. The phosphorus use efficiency of no-tillage with plastic-film mulching and no-tillage with plastic-film mulching and straw mulching increased by 9.60% and 9.45% respectively, and the potassium use efficiency of treatment with plastic-film mulching increased by 10.02%-39.62%. However, straw mulching and no-tillage reduced the use efficiency of NPK.

MOST Discipline Catalogue农学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8837
Collection水保所2018--2019届毕业生论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵晶. 黄土旱塬区长期保护性耕作对玉米产量和土壤水肥效应影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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