ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--届毕业生论文
不同覆盖措施对干化土壤水分的影响研究
田璐
Subtype硕士
2019-05-13
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral中国科学院大学水土保持与生态环境研究中心节水中心会议室
Degree Name农学硕士学位
Keyword干化土壤 覆盖措施 土壤含水率 土壤水分恢复度 土壤干化度
Abstract

为探索黄土丘陵区深层干化土壤在不同地面覆盖下的土壤水分恢复特征以及在干化土壤上种植植物的生长状况,在陕西省米脂县丘陵山地建造大型模拟干化土壤土柱,分别设置薄膜覆盖、石子覆盖、树枝覆盖、裸地、栽植枣树、刺槐、苜蓿、柠条、早熟禾9个处理,利用定位监测获取试验区土柱10米土层土壤水分,分析不同覆盖措施对土壤水分、储水量、水分入渗深度、降雨贮存效率等指标的影响。定期对植物生长状况进行测量,分析植物生长耗水状况,以期为干化土壤后续植被的建造提供理论依据,为干化环境中土壤水分管理提供依据。对2014-2017年土壤水分定位监测数据分析结果如下:

1)裸地1-5月土壤含水率基本保持不变,土壤水分入渗深度没有发生变化;6-11月土壤水分累积土壤储水量、含水率增大,土壤水分入渗深度增加。坡耕地土壤水分0-200 cm范围内波动较大,坡耕地平均含水率15.26%,储水量为1526 mm,表层0-100 cm900-1000 cm深度范围内土壤水分轻度亏缺,100-900 cm范围内土壤水分无亏缺现象。

2)至试验期结束薄膜覆盖、石子覆盖、树枝覆盖、裸地土壤含水率分别为19.6%16.0%14.1%12.5%;恢复深度分别为:1000 cm1000 cm700 cm480 cm,薄膜覆盖、石子覆盖、树枝覆盖、裸地01000 cm深度范围内土壤储水量分别增加1211.4 mm853.4 mm662.5 mm523.2 mm,全年覆盖降雨贮存效率分别为63.4%42.4%29.4%23.0%

3)到2017年末,早熟禾、苜蓿、柠条、枣树、刺槐土壤含水率分别为9.1 %6.3%6.9%7.8%5.3%,较初始土壤含水率变化量分别为1.3%-1.3%-0.8%-2.4%0.2%

4)到2017年末,早熟禾高度为42.3 cm,苜蓿高63.7 cm、地径为3.3 mm,柠条高114.3 cm、地径为10.2 mm,枣树高146 cm、地径为73.8 cm × 88.2 cm、刺槐高480 cm、地径为189.3 cm × 197.4 cm。储水量变化量依次为135.9 mm-131.8 mm-61.8 mm17.8 mm-235.6 mm;年均蒸散量依次为523.1 mm611.1 mm588.0 mm586.4 mm666.5 mm

55种植物根系耗水深度变化最大时期为每年5-7月,9-11月份为植物表层土壤水分恢复时期,可在5-7月采取较大力度的土壤水分保持工作。至2017年末早熟禾耗水深度范围为0-200 cm;柠条耗水深度达540 cm,年均耗水深度为180 cm,以此速度发展3年以后柠条耗水深度将达1000 cm;苜蓿耗水深度达1000 cm2017年刺槐深层土壤含水率与2016年基本相同,0-1000 cm平均含水量为5.3%,枣树耗水深度范围为0-300 cm

6)早熟禾、苜蓿、柠条、枣树、刺槐土壤水分亏缺度以植物生长阻滞含水量(13.2%)为基础计算值分别为41.0%42.5%41.4%42.1%41.7%,至2017年末亏缺度为30.7%52.5%47.6%40.8%59.5%;早熟禾土壤水分恢复至13.2%还需12年。以坡耕地土壤含水率(15.26%)为基准初始亏缺度为49.0%50.2%49.3%49.9%49.6%,至2017年末亏缺度分别为40.1%58.9%54.7%48.8%65.0%,早熟禾土壤含水率恢复至15.26%还需18年。

Other Abstract

The soil drying phenomenon of artificial forest land in Loess Plateau is serious. Once the dry layer of soil is formed, it is difficult to recover in a short time. This will adversely affect the growth of plants and the selection of subsequent reforestation forest species. Therefore, it is very important to study the soil moisture restoration and the planting and growth of the vegetation on the dry soil. In order to explore the soil moisture recovery characteristics of the deep dry soil in the loess hilly region under different ground cover and the growth of plants planted on the dry soil, a large simulated dry soil column was constructed in the Mizhi hills and hills of northern Shaanxi Province. The surface was covered with film, stone, branch, bare land, date tree, locust, alfalfa, lime and Kentucky bluegrass respectively. The effects of different mulching measures on soil moisture, water storage, water infiltration depth, rainfall storage efficiency and other indexes were analyzed by using location monitoring to obtain soil moisture in 10 meters soil layer of soil column in the experimental area. In order to provide theoretical basis for the construction of subsequent vegetation in dry soil and to provide reference for soil water management in dry environment, the growth status of plants was measured regularly, and the water consumption status of plants was analyzed in order to provide the theoretical basis for the construction of subsequent vegetation in dry soil. The analysis results of soil moisture location monitoring data from 2014 to 2017 are as follows.

1Under the influence of rainfall, the evaporation of bare soil was equal to that of the same period in January-May, the soil moisture content remained unchanged, and the depth of water infiltration did not change. The evaporation in June-November was less than that in the same period. The accumulation of soil water resulted in the increase of soil water content and the increase of soil water infiltration depth. The soil moisture of sloping farmland with loose surface fluctuated in the range of 0 ~ 200 cm, and the soil moisture below 200 cm did not change. The average moisture content of sloping farmland was 15.26%, the water storage was 1526 mm, the soil water deficit was slight in the depth of 0 ~ 100 cm, 900-1000 cm, and there was no soil water deficit in the range of 100 ~ 900 cm.

2At the end of the experiment period, the soil moisture content of bare soil was 19.6%, 16.0%, 14.1% and 12.5%, respectively, with film mulching, stone mulching and branch mulching. The restoration depths are: 1000 cm,1000 cm, 700 cm, 480 cm, film mulching, stone mulching and branch mulching, respectively. The soil water storage increases by 1211.4 mm, 853. 4 mm, 662.5 mm, 523.2 mm. In the depth range of 0-1 000 cm in bare soil. The annual rainfall storage efficiency of 4 mm, 662.5 mm, 523.2 mm, was 63.4%, 42.4%, 29.4%, 23.0%, respectively.

3By the end of 2017, soil moisture of POA pratensis, alfalfa, Caragana, jujube and Robinia pseudoacacia were 9.1%, 6.3%, 6.9%, 7.8%, 5.3%, respectively. The jujube trees increased by 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively. The soil water consumption of Alfalfa, Caragana and Robinia pseudoacacia decreased by 1.3%, 0.8%, 2.4% respectively. The order of soil water consumption was POA pratensis, jujube tree, Caragana, Alfalfa and Robinia pseudoacacia.

4By the end of 2017, the height of POA pratensis was 42.3 cm, Alfalfa height was  63.7 cm, ground diameter was 3.3 mm, Caragana height was 114.3 cm, ground diameter was 10.2 mm, height was 146 cm, ground diameter was 73.8 cm × 88.2 cm, Robinia pseudoacacia height was 480 cm, Ground diameter was 189.3 cm × 197.4 cm. The average annual evapotranspiration of water storage was 135.9 mm, -131.8 mm, -61.8 mm, 17.8 mm, -235.6 mm; and the annual evapotranspiration was 523.1 mm, 611.1 mm, 588.0mm, 586.4 mm, 666.5 mm.

5The soil water consumption period of the five species is from May to July of each year, from July to September, and from September to November, the period of surface soil moisture recovery is from May to July, and from July to September. Therefore, a great deal of soil moisture conservation should be carried out from May to July of the year. At the end of 2017, the increase of soil water content in 0-280 cm range of jujube tree was greater than that of initial water content, and the soil water content of premature gramine 0-420 cm increased. The depth of water consumption of Caragana is 540 cm, and the average depth of water consumption is 180 cm. After 3 years of development, the depth of water consumption of Caragana will reach 1000 cm. The depth of water consumption of alfalfa reaches 1000 cm. The soil moisture content of Robinia pseudoacacia in 2017 was almost the same as that in 2016, and the average water content of 0-1000 cm was 5.3%, indicating that soil storage water was no longer available. Only the current year's rainfall was consumed within the depth of 0-1000 cm; the water consumption depth of jujube trees was 0-300 cm.

6The soil water deficit of POA pratensis, Alfalfa, Caragana, jujube and Robinia pseudoacacia was 41.0%, 42.5%, 41.4%, 42.1%, 41.7% based on the water content of plant growth arrest (13.2%) respectively. The deficit was 30.7 %, 52.5 %, 47.6 %, 40.8 % and 59.5% by the end of 2017, and it would take 12 years for Kentucky bluegrass to recover to 13.2%. Taking the soil moisture content of sloping land (15.26%) as the benchmark, the initial deficiency degrees were 49.0%, 50.2%, 49.3%, 49.9% and 49.6% respectively, and by the end of 2017 they were 40.1%, 58.9% and 54.7%, respectively. 48.8%, 65.0%, and it will take 18 years for POA pratensis to recover to 15.26% soil moisture.

MOST Discipline Catalogue农学::林学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8788
Collection水保所2018--届毕业生论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
田璐. 不同覆盖措施对干化土壤水分的影响研究[D]. 中国科学院大学水土保持与生态环境研究中心节水中心会议室. 中国科学院大学水土保持与生态环境研究中心,2019.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
2019届硕士毕业论文-田璐.pdf(7133KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[田璐]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[田璐]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[田璐]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.