ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟发育研究
郭明明1; 王文龙1,2; 李建明3; 朱宝才1,4; 史倩华1
2016
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume32Issue:24Pages:155-163
Abstract

为研究矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟形态发育特征,在野外调查的基础上,设计坡度(3°、6°、9°、12°)和雨
强(0.5、1.0、2.5、2.0、2.5、3.0 mm/min)2 个处理,在野外建立不同坡度的道路小区,采用人工模拟降雨的方法,测
定了不同处理道路径流产沙参数和细沟形态指标。结果表明:1)各坡度道路径流率为1.12~8.24 L/min,与雨强线性关
系极显著,随坡度变化不显著;除0.5 mm/min 雨强3°~9°坡及1.0 mm/min 雨强3°坡道路径流流态为层流外,其余为紊
流,雨强-坡度交互作用(I×S)对流态影响显著;阻力系数只与坡度相关。2)各坡度道路剥蚀率为0.92~324.46 g/(m2·s),
与雨强、坡度和径流率呈极显著幂函数关系(R2=0.968,P<0.01),道路土壤发生剥蚀的临界剪切力和临界径流功率分别
为2.15 N/m2 和0.41 W/(m2·s)。3)3°道路以片状侵蚀为主,6°~12°道路细沟发育,细沟宽深比、复杂度、割裂度和细沟
密度分别为1.80~3.75、1.07~1.55、0.20%~10.33%和0.067~2.01 m/m2,细沟发育程度是雨强和坡度交互作用(I×S)
的结果。4)6°~12°道路细沟侵蚀量占总侵蚀量比例为18.0%~57.16%,总侵蚀量与细沟宽深比、细沟复杂度、细沟割裂
度和细沟密度均呈显著的函数关系(R2=0.35~0.96,P≤0.01),割裂度是影响土质道路总侵蚀量的最佳细沟形态因子。
结果可为矿区土质道路水土保持工程设计及生产安全提供参数支持。

Other Abstract

Serious man-made soil and water loss are common on unpaved roads in the mining area of Shenfu Coalfield. In
general, unpaved roads are frequently rolled by transport machinery and result in massive mud after rainfall. A certain
thickness of loose surface soil layer is generated after the mud is air-dried and rolled, which negatively impacts the ecological
environment. An artificially simulated rainfall experiment was carried out in this study. The law of runoff and sediment yields
and the characteristic of rill morphology development of unpaved road in mining area were studied at different rainfall
intensities and slope degrees. According to the results of field investigations, the slope of roads usually ranged from 2° to 20°
in the area and thus we set the slope of plots to 3°, 6°, 9°and 12°. Six rainfall intensities were tested, varying from 0.5 to
3.0 mm/min with an interval of 0.5 mm/min. The thickness of loose surface soil layer was set to 0.5 cm in our experiments.
Plot used in the experiment was laid out to be 3 m×1 m and two flow sections were set for the measurement of runoff and
sediment. Before each experiment, rainfall intensity was calibrated repeatedly until the rainfall uniformity coefficient reached
80% or higher. Soil particle composition was determined using Mastersizer 2000, whilst soil bulk density and moisture content
were measured using the oven-drying method. During each experiment, flow velocity was measured with the dye tracing
method. Flow width and depth were measured with a point gauge system. From 3 minutes before the runoff generation, runoff
samples were taken once a minute. Other samples were taken every 3 minutes after runoff generation. All of the experiment
was repeated twice. Results showed that: 1) Runoff rates varied from 1.12 to 8.24 L/min and had a significant linear
relationship with rainfall intensities and no correlation with slope degrees. The Reynolds number and Resistance coefficient
were 232.38-2 073.0 and 0.45-4.47, respectively. The turblence intensity of runoff increased with the increases of rainfall
intensities and slope degrees. Resistance coefficient varied significantly with slope. 2) The soil detachment rate of unpaved
road ranged from 0.92 to 324.46 g/(m2·s) and was a significant power function of rainfall intensities, slope degrees and runoff
rates. Critical shear stress and stream power activating sediment detachment of unpaved roads were found to be 2.15 N/m2 and
0.41 W/(m2·s). 3) Sheet erosion was the main erosion form on unpaved roads with a slope degree of 3°. The rill formed on the
road surface when the slope degree was greater than 3°. The rill breadth depth ratio, rill complexity degree, rill split degree and
rill density were 1.80-3.75, 1.07-1.55, 0.20%-10.33% and 0.067-2.01 m/m2, respectively. Overall, the rill density increased
with rainfall intensity increased, rill breadth depth ratio decreased with slope degrees increased and rill complexity degree and
split degree were positively correlated with the interaction of rainfall intensities and slope degrees. 4) Ratios of rill soil erosion
yield to the total soil erosion yield were 18.0%-57.16%. The power function could be used to describe the relationship between
total erosion yield and rill split degree and rill density. Exponential and linear functions were found to be useful to express the
relationship between total erosion yield and rill breadth depth ratio and complexity degree. The results provide key parameters
to the implementation of engineering soil and water conservation measures on unpaved roads and are therefore meaningful for
the production safety in the mining area.

Keyword侵蚀 径流 水动力学 神府矿区 道路 细沟 形态特征
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8765
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
3.长江科学院水土保持研究所
4.山西农业大学林学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郭明明,王文龙,李建明,等. 野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟发育研究[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(24):155-163.
APA 郭明明,王文龙,李建明,朱宝才,&史倩华.(2016).野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟发育研究.农业工程学报,32(24),155-163.
MLA 郭明明,et al."野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟发育研究".农业工程学报 32.24(2016):155-163.
Files in This Item: Download All
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及(1485KB)期刊论文作者接受稿开放获取CC BY-NC-SAView Download
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[郭明明]'s Articles
[王文龙]'s Articles
[李建明]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[郭明明]'s Articles
[王文龙]'s Articles
[李建明]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[郭明明]'s Articles
[王文龙]'s Articles
[李建明]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: 野外模拟降雨条件下矿区土质道路径流产沙及细沟发育研究_郭明明.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
This file does not support browsing at this time
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.