ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土塬区长期不同耕作、覆盖措施对表层土壤 理化性状和玉米产量的影响
潘雅文1; 樊军1,2; 郝明德1,2; 陈旭1
2016
Source Publication植物营养与肥料学报
Volume22Issue:6Pages:1558-1567
Abstract

【目的】研究不同耕作、覆盖措施对土壤理化性质及对作物农艺性状的影响,为选择适合黄土高原沟壑
区最佳耕作、覆盖措施提供参考。【方法】田间定位试验设置 12 个处理,分别为传统耕作、传统耕作 + 膜上
种植、传统耕作 + 秸秆覆盖、传统耕作 + 膜侧种植、传统耕作 + 全膜覆盖、传统耕作 + 秸秆覆盖 + 地膜覆盖、
隔年耕作、免耕、免耕 + 地膜覆盖、免耕 + 秸秆覆盖、免耕 + 生草覆盖、免耕 + 秸秆覆盖 + 地膜覆盖,每个处
理 3 个重复。于 2014 年对已持续 12 年的不同耕作、覆盖措施土壤理化性质与农艺指标进行测定与分析。
【结果】免耕处理降低了土壤容重,提高了土壤饱和导水率和 4 月下旬至 10 月上旬表层土壤含水量,降低了作
物出苗期温度,降低了成熟期土壤全磷与速效磷含量,降低了株高、叶面积指数和产量。相反,地膜覆盖极显
著增加了土壤容重 (P < 0.01),显著降低了土壤饱和导水率 (P < 0.05),降低了成熟期土壤有机质、全氮含量,
有较为明显的保持和调节温度的作用,不同类型的地膜覆盖均能极显著提高玉米株高和叶面积指数进而提高产
量 (P < 0.01)。秸秆覆盖对土壤容重和含水量的影响与耕作方式有关,翻耕条件下,秸秆覆盖增加了土壤容重;
免耕条件下,降低了土壤容重且均不显著。翻耕 + 秸秆覆盖土壤表层含水量最高;免耕 + 秸秆覆盖处理的土壤
含水量最低。但秸秆覆盖下土壤有机质含量、全氮含量、作物株高、叶面积指数和产量与未覆盖时相比均有增
加,影响皆达到显著水平 (P < 0.05),且均有降低地表温度的作用。【结论】免耕虽有利于改良土壤物理性状,
却较传统耕作降低了作物产量。免耕条件下秸秆 + 地膜处理显著提高作物产量和土壤全氮、有机质含量 (P <
0.05),是免耕处理组中最优选择。不同类型的地膜覆盖均可显著提高作物产量 (P < 0.05),而且秸秆 + 地膜双覆
盖增产效果最显著,并显著提高土壤全氮、有机质含量,是黄土塬区最适宜的覆盖措施。

Other Abstract

【Objectives】This study aimed to compare the effects of long-term different tillage and mulching
methods on physical and chemical properties of surface soil, and the consequent agronomic characters of maize, to
provide the references for choosing suitable tillage and mulching method in tableland region of the Loess Plateau.
【Methods】The long-term field trials are composed of 12 treatments: conventional tillage (CT), CT + film
mulching, CT + straw mulching, CT + side-film mulching, CT+ whole film mulching, CT + straw and film
mulching, tillage every other year (OT), no-tillage (NT), NT + film mulching, NT + straw mulching, NT + grassmulching, NT + straw and film mulching. The soil physical and chemical properties and the agronomic characters
of maize after 12 years' consistent treatment were investigated. 【Results】The no-tillage treatment reduced the
soil bulk density and temperature during seedling emergence, reduced soil total P and available P content in
mature stage, improved the saturated hydraulic conductivity and surface soil moisture from April 28 to October
15, the plant height, leaf area index and yields of maize were decreased as a result. Film mulching was able to
reduce diurnal temperature, increase soil bulk density very significantly (P < 0.01), decrease saturated hydraulic
conductivity significantly (P < 0.05) and decrease organic matter and total N of soil in maize mature stage. All the
treatments containing film mulching increased the height, the yield and leaf area index of the maize very
significantly (P < 0.01). Straw mulching showed different effects on ρb and Ks, they increased soil bulk density
under conventional tillage but decreased it under no-tillage slightly; Compared with the no-straw-mulching
treatments, straw mulching led very significant improvement of plant growth and yield (P < 0.01), as they could
reduce the surface temperature, increase organic matter and total N of soil significantly (P < 0.05).
【Conclusions】No-tillage without mulching is capable of improving soil physical properties, but not of keeping
soil moisture necessary for maize growth, so it is not acceptable for high yield maize production. No-tillage
combined with straw and film mulching could significantly increase maize yield as they are effective in increasing
soil organic matter and total N content. All types of film mulching have significant yield increase effect, of them,
combined straw and film mulching is proved to be the optimal one in tableland region of the Loess Plateau.

Keyword黄土高原 免耕 覆盖材料 土壤肥力 玉米产量
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8743
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
潘雅文,樊军,郝明德,等. 黄土塬区长期不同耕作、覆盖措施对表层土壤 理化性状和玉米产量的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报,2016,22(6):1558-1567.
APA 潘雅文,樊军,郝明德,&陈旭.(2016).黄土塬区长期不同耕作、覆盖措施对表层土壤 理化性状和玉米产量的影响.植物营养与肥料学报,22(6),1558-1567.
MLA 潘雅文,et al."黄土塬区长期不同耕作、覆盖措施对表层土壤 理化性状和玉米产量的影响".植物营养与肥料学报 22.6(2016):1558-1567.
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