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子午岭林区浅层滑坡侵蚀与植被的关系 ———以富县“7·21”特大暴雨为例
韩勇1,3; 郑粉莉1,2; 徐锡蒙2; 盛贺伟2
2016
Source Publication生态学报
Volume36Issue:15Pages:4635-4643
Abstract

以2013 年陕北富县“7·21”特大暴雨滑坡侵蚀灾害为对象,通过调查暴雨侵蚀区典型小流域植被条件及滑坡特征,测定
滑坡壁不同土层的根系重量、土壤孔隙度、土壤容重等指标,研究子午岭林区暴雨滑坡侵蚀与植被根系的关系。根据不同类型
植被根系深度和滑坡侵蚀特征( 侵蚀深度、滑动面宽度及长度,滑坡体体积、滑动距离等) ,可将林区暴雨滑坡侵蚀划分为三类:
以草本植被为主的A 类滑坡,以灌丛植被为主的B 类滑坡,以乔本植被为主的C 类滑坡。结果表明,三类滑坡侵蚀的侵蚀深度
与其对应植被类型的根系深度相近,且植被及其根系会加剧滑坡侵蚀的发生。在此次暴雨滑坡侵蚀中,滑坡侵蚀强度受植物根
系重量、土壤孔隙度、土壤容重等因素的共同影响,但根系重量对滑坡侵蚀强度的影响占主导作用,通过建立二者之间的关系式
发现,根系对滑坡侵蚀的贡献率超过80%。不同植被类型的滑坡侵蚀深度不同,且滑坡侵蚀强度也存在差异,表明植被根系不
仅具有塑造滑坡侵蚀特征的作用,而且会影响滑坡侵蚀的强弱程度。在强降水基础上,特别是当降水量达到诱发滑坡灾害发生
的临界值时,植被及其根系会加剧滑坡侵蚀的发生。在今后工作中,要因地制宜合理配置各类植被,同时结合其它措施,以便提
高植被防治水土流失的作用,更好地发挥植被的水土保持效益。

Other Abstract

To clarify the relationship between surface landslide and vegetation,a case study of the“7·21”rainstorm
disaster in Fuxian County,northern Shaanxi Province,was conducted. A typical small watershed in the Ziwuling forest area
was selected as the research site. The study investigated the vegetation conditions and landslide characteristics and
simultaneously collected soil samples ( root weight,soil bulk density,and saturated water content) from different soil layers
of the landslide cliff. According to different vegetation conditions ( i. e. ,vegetation type,dominant species,root depth)
and shallow landslide characteristics ( i. e. ,erosion depth,width and length of sliding surface,landslide volume,sliding
distance) ,37 surface landslides were grouped into three types ( A,B,and C) . The dominant vegetation of types A,B,
and C were mainly herbage,shrub,and arbor,respectively. The scale of the landslides was in the order of type A < B <C. The average erosion depth was 45,63,and 96 cm,and the landslide volume was about 100—500,300—700,and
500—1500 m3,respectively,for types A,B,and C. Some landslide materials accumulated at the bottom of the slope of
types B and C slides,and some landslide materials were even deposited at the gully bed of type C. The results showed that
the different types of surface landslide presented unique landslide erosion depths and that these depths were normally equal
to the root depth. Moreover,landslide erosion intensity increased with vegetation root weight. Surface landslide was
aggravated by vegetation and its roots. We also found that shallow landslide intensity was affected mainly by three factors,
root weight,soil porosity,and soil bulk density,and that the heavy rainstorm was the triggering factor in this surface
landslide erosion. However,soil porosity and soil bulk density were both affected by root weight,and a linear regression
analysis indicated that only root weight made a positive contribution to landslide erosion intensity. The contribution rate of
root weight to the landslide erosion intensity exceeded 80%. The shallow landslides corresponding to different vegetation
types had different erosion depths and intensities. This means that vegetation and its roots not only have significant effects
on shaping the erosion features of shallow landslide but also can affect the degree of landslide erosion intensity. In cases of
high precipitation,especially when the precipitation is up to or higher than the critical value,vegetation and its roots will
aggravate the development of landslide erosion. In related future works pertaining to soil and water conservation,the soil
and water conservation effects of vegetation should be addressed when forestry measures are applied. We can reasonably
allocate different types of vegetation and simultaneously supplement with other engineering measures to improve the control
of soil and water loss and optimize the benefits of soil and water conservation.

Keyword滑坡侵蚀 侵蚀强度 植被类型 根系 “7·21”特大暴雨
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8711
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
3.中国科学院大学
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩勇,郑粉莉,徐锡蒙,等. 子午岭林区浅层滑坡侵蚀与植被的关系 ———以富县“7·21”特大暴雨为例[J]. 生态学报,2016,36(15):4635-4643.
APA 韩勇,郑粉莉,徐锡蒙,&盛贺伟.(2016).子午岭林区浅层滑坡侵蚀与植被的关系 ———以富县“7·21”特大暴雨为例.生态学报,36(15),4635-4643.
MLA 韩勇,et al."子午岭林区浅层滑坡侵蚀与植被的关系 ———以富县“7·21”特大暴雨为例".生态学报 36.15(2016):4635-4643.
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