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添加DCD 对雨养区春玉米产量、氧化亚氮 排放及硝态氮残留的影响
吴得峰1; 姜继韶3; 高兵2; 刘燕2; 王蕊1
2016
Source Publication植物营养与肥料学报
Volume22Issue:1Pages:30-38
Abstract

【目的】田间条件下氮肥中添加硝化抑制剂双氰胺( dicyandiamide,DCD) 对氧化亚氮排放和硝态氮含量变化的
影响尚不清楚,研究不同施氮模式对玉米产量、氧化亚氮排放以及对土壤深层硝态氮残留和氮肥农学效率等的影响,
对提高氮肥利用效率、减少农业源温室气体排放具有重要意义。【方法】试验于2013 年4 月至2014 年9 月,在中国
科学院长武黄土高原农业生态试验站进行,供试作物为春玉米,品种为先玉335,半覆膜种植。试验设4 个处理: 传统
施氮( Con) 、减量施氮( Opt) 、减量施氮+ 硝化抑制剂( Opt + DCD) 、不施氮( N0) ,定期采集土样和氧化亚氮气体,利
用流动分析仪和气象色谱仪测定土壤矿质氮和氧化亚氮的含量,采用SAS 软件对不同处理的产量和各个指标进行方
差分析。【结果】Opt 和Opt + DCD 在保持产量的同时,显著影响氧化亚氮排放和硝态氮残留。Opt 处理的硝态氮含量
峰值降低13. 7%,而Opt + DCD 处理降低硝态氮峰值19. 0%。其次,施氮模式还影响硝态氮峰值出现的时间: Con
( 190. 1 mg /kg) 率先出现,其次是Opt( 164. 0 mg /kg) 和Opt + DCD( 132. 9 mg /kg) 。Opt 显著降低了氧化亚氮的排放,
降幅为29. 4%,而在Opt 基础上添加DCD 可进一步降低氧化亚氮排放28. 1%。在雨季,硝态氮含量和氧化亚氮排放
随降雨而出现波动。尽管Opt 降低了铵态氮峰值,但在Opt 基础上,添加DCD 提高了铵态氮峰值。4 种施氮模式土壤
剖面0—100 cm 和100—200 cm 的硝态氮残留量分别介于33. 5 148. 9 和24. 8 92. 8 kg /hm2 之间,平均值分别为
78. 5 和56. 4 kg /hm2。土壤剖面0—200 cm 的硝态氮残留量以Con 最大,为225. 9 kg /hm2,与Con 相比,Opt 和Opt +
DCD 的硝态氮残留量降幅分别为48. 0% 59. 0%、29. 4% 57. 5%。Opt 和Opt + DCD 之间硝态氮残留差异不显著
( P > 0. 05) 。【结论】不同施氮模式对玉米产量、矿质氮和氧化亚氮的动态变化以及氮肥农学效率具有显著影响,但
是Opt 和Opt + DCD 在施氮量减少20%的同时,不仅没有显著降低玉米产量,还进一步降低了土壤剖面硝态氮的残留
量和农业源温室气体的排放。因此在黄土高原雨养农业区,添加DCD 是一种科学有效的施肥管理方式。

Other Abstract

【Objectives】The impacts of nitrate inhibitor ( dicyandiamide,DCD) on crop yields and residuals of soil
nitrate N in field have been less reported under field condition. It is of great importance to research its effects indifferent nitrogen ( N) fertilization modes for high maize yield,low N2O emission and high fertilizer-nitrogen use
efficiency.【Methods】A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station from
April 2013 to September 2014. Pioneer 335,a high-yield spring maize hybrid,was chosen and planted with half
plastic film mulching. The experiment consisted of 4 N fertilization treatments with three replicates: conventional N
fertilization rate ( Con) ,optimal N fertilization ( Opt) ,optimal N fertilization plus nitrification inhibitor ( Opt +
DCD) and control treatment ( N0) . Soil samples and N2O were gathered at regular intervals,soil mineral N and
N2O were analyzed using continuous flow analyzer and gas chromatograph 【Results】The Opt and Opt + DCD
treatments can maintained the maize yields,and simultaneously significantly influence the N2O emission and the
residuals of nitrate nitrogen. The peak values of nitrate nitrogen are significantly decreased by 13. 7% and 19. 0%
in the Opt and Opt + DCD treatments,respectively. The nitrogen application modes also affect the time of peak
values. The peak values of nitrate nitrogen are appeared in the Con treatment ( 190. 1 mg /kg) firstly,and then the
Opt ( 164. 0 mg /kg) and Opt + DCD ( 132. 9 mg /kg) . The N2O emission is significantly decreased in the Opt
treatment ( 29. 4%) ,whereas further decreased ( 28. 1%) in the Opt + DCD treatment. The nitrate concentration
is fluctuated with precipitation during rainy season. The peak value of ammonium nitrogen is increased in the Opt +
DCD treatment,although it is decreased in the Opt treatment. The residuals of nitrate nitrogen at the depth of 0 -
100 cm and 100 -200 cm of four nitrogen application modes are in the ranges of 33. 5 -148. 9 kg /hm2 and 24. 8 -
92. 8 kg /hm2,with mean values of 78. 5 mg /kg and 56. 4 kg /hm2,respectively. The highest accumulation of
nitrate nitrogen in profile ( 0 -200 cm) is in the Con treatment ( 225. 9 kg /hm2 ) ,and about 48. 0%-59. 0% and
29. 4%-57. 5% of the accumulation are decreased in the Opt and Opt + DCD treatments compare to that in the Con
treatment,respectively. The residuals of nitrate nitrogen between Opt and Opt + DCD have not significant
difference. 【Conclusions】Different N fertilization modes have significant impact on maize yields,dynamics of soil
mineral N and N2O emissions and agronomic efficiency of fertilizer-nitrogen. However,with the N application rate
reduced by 20%,the treatments of Opt and Opt + DCD not only maintain the maize yields,but also further
decrease the residuals of nitrate nitrogen in soil profile and emissions of greenhouse gas from agricultural sources.
Therefore,DCD addition is a kind of scientific and effective fertilization management mode in rain-fed agricultural
region of Loess Plateau.

Keyword春玉米 氧化亚氮 硝态氮动态 硝化抑制剂
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8686
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
2.中国农业大学资源与环境学院
3.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴得峰,姜继韶,高兵,等. 添加DCD 对雨养区春玉米产量、氧化亚氮 排放及硝态氮残留的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报,2016,22(1):30-38.
APA 吴得峰,姜继韶,高兵,刘燕,&王蕊.(2016).添加DCD 对雨养区春玉米产量、氧化亚氮 排放及硝态氮残留的影响.植物营养与肥料学报,22(1),30-38.
MLA 吴得峰,et al."添加DCD 对雨养区春玉米产量、氧化亚氮 排放及硝态氮残留的影响".植物营养与肥料学报 22.1(2016):30-38.
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