ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
生物炭施用方式及用量对土壤水分入渗与蒸发的影响
李帅霖1; 王霞1; 王朔2; 张永旺1; 王杉杉1
2016
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume32Issue:14Pages:135-144
Abstract

研究生物炭施用方式及用量对土壤水分入渗、蒸发特性的影响,可为旱区农业与生态建设中应用生物炭改良土
壤水文特性提供科学依据与技术支持。该文采用室内土柱模拟方法,研究了3 种生物炭施用方式A(施在表层0~10 cm)、
B(施在下层>10~20 cm)和C(施在耕层0~20 cm)和4 种质量添加比例(0、1%、2%和4%)对土壤水分湿润峰、累
积入渗量及蒸发的影响。结果表明:生物炭对土壤水分入渗、蒸发的影响受施用方式和用量的共同制约。与对照(不施
生物炭)相比,A 与C 施用方式在1%和2%用量均可以减缓湿润峰运移速度,而较高用量(4%)可以促进湿润峰运移;
B 施用方式2%用量明显促进湿润峰运移,1%与4%用量无明显影响;以入渗时间50 min 为例,A4%能显著增加累积入
渗量,增量达对照的10.63%(P<0.05),而B1%、A1%、C2%、C1%、C4%可显著降低累积入渗量(P<0.05),减少量分
别达对照的13.90%、12.46%、8.49%、5.32%、4.66%,其余处理与对照相比差异不显著。在同一施用方式下,除C2%和
C1%外,各处理累积入渗量均随生物质炭用量增加而呈上升趋势。各处理土壤湿润峰运移距离与时间之间呈幂函数关系,
且累积入渗量与时间关系可用Kostiakov 入渗经验公式描述,Philip 入渗模型可用于描述耕层(0~20 cm)混合生物炭土
壤累积入渗量变化过程。各处理35d 累积蒸发量与对照相比差异不显著。A4%可显著增加耕层土壤入渗能力,在改良质
地较黏土壤入渗性能时,在土壤表层添加较高用量(4%)生物炭效果较好。

Other Abstract

Water scarcity is one of the major limitations to agriculture sustainable development in dryland areas. Biochar as a
promising novel alternative of soil amendment to improve soil quality has received a wide attention. Understanding the effects
of biochar on soil water infiltration process and evaporation characteristics will provide the scientific basis and technical
support for the biochar applying in dry farming regions. Aiming to study the soil water infiltration and evaporation
characteristics of different application patterns with different addition amount, the soil column simulation experiment was
conducted under the condition of ponding infiltration. Biochar (pyrolysis temperature of 450-480 ℃, carbonization time of
8-10 h) derived from apple wood was applied to soil (Eum-Orthric) in 3 patterns (A (surface layer soil 0-10 cm), B (underlying
soil 10-20 cm), and C (plough layer soil 0-20 cm)) and 4 application amounts (0, 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w)), all treatments with
triplicate. Compared with control group, the wetting front migration rate of all application patterns of biochar at the rate of 1%,
the application pattern A or C at the rate of 2% and the application pattern B at the rate of 4% were decreased, however, the
application pattern A and C at the rate of 4% and the application pattern B at the rate of 2% could increase the migration rate.
After 50 min since infiltration starting, the wetting front depths of the application pattern C at the rate of 2%, the application
pattern A at the rate of 1%, the application pattern A at the rate of 2%, the application pattern B at the rate of 1%, the
application pattern C at the rate of 1% and the application pattern B at the rate of 4% were 137.0, 139.8, 142.0, 145.0,149.0
and 150.0 mm respectively, lower than control group (153.5 mm) significantly (P<0.05). But the wetting front depths of
application pattern A and C at the rate of 4% and application pattern B at the rate of 2% were 175.0, 168.0 and 165.7 mm
respectively, significantly higher than control (153.5 mm) (P<0.05). While after 50 min since infiltration starting, adding 4%
biochar with application pattern A, the cumulative infiltration amount increased significantly (P<0.05) by 10.63% compared
with the control. At 1% biochar application rate, the cumulative infiltration amount decreased significantly (P<0.05) by
12.46%, 13.9% and 5.32% compared with the control under application pattern A, B and C, respectively. Adding biochar with
application pattern C at the rate of 2% and 4%, the infiltration amount significantly decreased by 8.49% and 4.66%
respectively (P<0.05) compared with the control. The relationships of wetting front distance and infiltration time in all
treatments could be described by the power function with the determination coefficient greater than 0.996. The Philip
infiltration model only suited to describe the soil water infiltration process of application pattern C, with the determination
coefficient ranging from 0.996 to 0.999. The Kostiakov infiltration model was suitable for all treatments with the
determination coefficient ranging from 0.996 to 0.999. During the successive evaporation of 35 d, all treatments had no
significant difference in the cumulative evaporation compared to the control (P<0.05). But there were significant differences
(P<0.05) about the cumulative evaporation between the application pattern A at the rate of 2% (62.67 mm) and application
pattern C at the rate of 2% (54.86 mm), the application A at the rate of 2% (62.67 mm) and the rate of 4% (59.53 mm), the
application pattern C at the rate of 1% (60.18 mm) and 2% (54.86 mm). Notably, the application pattern A at the rate of 4%
and application pattern C at the rate of 2% decreased the cumulative evaporation by 5.96% and 7.84% respectively compared
to the control. Our results show that both biochar application pattern and amount can affect the soil infiltration capacity and
evaporation characteristics. Adding higher rate (4%) biochar in surface layer soil can improve hydrologic characteristics of
argillaceous soil.

Keyword土壤 水分 蒸发 生物炭 入渗 旱地
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8665
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.西藏农牧科学院蔬菜研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李帅霖,王霞,王朔,等. 生物炭施用方式及用量对土壤水分入渗与蒸发的影响[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(14):135-144.
APA 李帅霖,王霞,王朔,张永旺,&王杉杉.(2016).生物炭施用方式及用量对土壤水分入渗与蒸发的影响.农业工程学报,32(14),135-144.
MLA 李帅霖,et al."生物炭施用方式及用量对土壤水分入渗与蒸发的影响".农业工程学报 32.14(2016):135-144.
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