ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
浅层填沙滴灌种植枸杞改良龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地研究
张体彬1,2; 展小云1; 康跃虎3; 万书勤3; 冯浩2
2016
Source Publication农业机械学报
Volume47Issue:10Pages:139-149
Abstract

龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地主要分布在我国西北旱区,其土壤碱化度高、结构差、导水率低是制约其改良利用的
关键因素。通过在滴头下方设置沙穴,探索在滴灌条件下种植枸杞的方式改良利用该盐碱荒地的可行性。通过设
置- 5 kPa( S1) 、- 10 kPa( S2) 、- 15 kPa( S3) 、- 20 kPa( S4) 和- 25 kPa( S5) 5 个不同土壤基质势控制灌水下限处
理,寻求最优的滴灌灌溉制度。结果表明,种植后土壤水分入渗性能得到显著改善,滴头下湿润区域面积不断增
大,逐渐形成一个脱盐区( ECe < 4 dS /m) 。控制较高的土壤基质势下限,有利于土壤盐分的淋洗。滴灌种植后土壤
的ECe /SARe
显著增加,说明土壤盐分组成特征发生变化,土壤物理性质得到改善; 土壤速效养分含量显著增加,其
中硝态氮表现出较强的随水迁移性,存在淋失风险,而速效磷随水迁移性弱,主要积累在0 ~ 20 cm 深度内。种植
3 a 之后,S1 成活率最低( 56. 8%) ,S3 最高( 81. 1%) ,而S2、S3 和S4 产量显著高于其他处理( p < 0. 05) ,三者之间
差异不显著,均为900 kg /hm2 左右,达到当地良田水平。结合土壤水盐特征、养分分布及枸杞生长等各方面因素,
可以通过在滴头下设置沙穴滴灌种植枸杞的方式改良龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地,并在种植前2 a 控制土壤基质势下
限为- 10 kPa,从第3 年改为- 20 kPa。

Other Abstract

Takyric solonetz is spread mainly in arid area,Northwest China. Its poor soil structure and
extremely low hydraulic conductivities ( Ks < 0. 1 mm/d) are the key factors restricting its amelioration.
The ECe
( electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract) ,SARe
( sodium adsorption ratio of saturated
paste extract) ,and pHs
( pH of saturated paste) of the native soil studied at depth of 0 ~ 30 cm were
12. 30 dS /m,44. 12 ( mmol /L) 0. 5 and 9. 33,respectively. After deep tillage,beds ( 1. 0 m width,0. 5 m
height) were formed. The drip lines were placed on beds covered with plastic. Lycium barbarum L.
seedlings were then planted. A three-year field experiment was conducted to determine if reclamation
could be achieved while cropping Lycium barbarum L. by using drip irrigation where soil beneath the dripemitters near the plants was replaced with sand in niches that were 0. 2 m ground diameter and 0. 2 m
depth. The purpose of sand-filled niche was to increase the area over which infiltration of water occured
thereby reducing the application rates to values that more closely matched the saturated hydraulic
conductivity of the native soil,provide a reservoir for holding the applied water before it infiltrated and
avoid the adversely mechanical impact and the stirring action of applied water on soil surface. Five
treatments based on soil matric potential ( SMP) thresholds used to trigger drip irrigation were designed to
find the optimal drip irrigation schedule,i. e. , - 5 kPa ( S1) , - 10 kPa ( S2) , - 15 kPa ( S3) ,
- 20 kPa ( S4) and - 25 kPa ( S5) . The results showed that significant improvement was achieved in
soil infiltration capability,which was demonstrated by the increasingly enlarged wetted area beneath the
drip emitter. Consequently,a desalt region ( ECe < 4 dS /m) was formed,and high SMP level was
favorable for the salt-leaching in soil. The ratio of ECe /SARe was increased significantly after planting,
which indicated the changes of soil salt composition characteristics and the amelioration of soil physical
properties. After planting with drip irrigation,the contents of soil available nutrients were increased
sharply. Nitrate nitrogen showed a high migration with water movement,and had potential to be lost by
leaching,so nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in the later period during one irrigation event to reduce
the leaching of nitrogen and raise fertilizer use efficiency. While available phosphorus was distributed
mainly in depth of 0 ~ 20 cm under drip emitter,due to its low migration with water. After three years
experiment,S1 had the lowest survival rate ( 56. 8%) ,and S3 got the highest ( 81. 1%) ,S2,S3 and
S4 gave higher fruit yields than other treatments significantly ( p < 0. 05) , which was around
900 kg /hm2,and it was close to the level in local farmland. The findings indicated that a sand-filled
niche beneath the drip emitter could be adopted for the reclamation of highly saline-sodic wasteland of
takyric solonetz. Considering the factors,including soil water-salt properties,soil nutrients distribution
and the growth of Lycium barbarum L. ,an SMP of - 10 kPa in the first two years and - 20 kPa from the
third year could be used to trigger drip irrigation.

Keyword龟裂碱土 滴灌 水分调控 土壤基质势 盐分淋洗 枸杞
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8657
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所国家节水灌溉杨凌工程技术研究中心
3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环与地表过程重点实验室
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张体彬,展小云,康跃虎,等. 浅层填沙滴灌种植枸杞改良龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地研究[J]. 农业机械学报,2016,47(10):139-149.
APA 张体彬,展小云,康跃虎,万书勤,&冯浩.(2016).浅层填沙滴灌种植枸杞改良龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地研究.农业机械学报,47(10),139-149.
MLA 张体彬,et al."浅层填沙滴灌种植枸杞改良龟裂碱土重度盐碱荒地研究".农业机械学报 47.10(2016):139-149.
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