ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
秸秆焚烧对土壤有机质和氮磷钾含量的影响
田国成1; 王钰2; 孙路1; 施明新2; 吴发启1
2016
Source Publication生态学报
Volume36Issue:2Pages:387-393
Abstract

秸秆露天焚烧作为对废弃秸秆常见的处理方式在中国普遍存在。目前的研究多集中在焚烧对区域大气环境的影响,对土
壤环境的化学效应研究较少。因此,为揭示大田秸秆焚烧对土壤生物化学性质的影响,设置不焚烧( CK) 、减量焚烧( A1) 、全量
焚烧( A2) 、增量焚烧( A3) 4 个处理,通过连续4 个月的田间小区定位试验,探究不同小麦秸秆焚烧量对耕层0—5 cm 土壤有机
质含量、微生物数量、土壤养分含量的即时效应和各指标在玉米各生育期内的变化情况。结果表明: 小麦秸秆焚烧1 d 后土壤
有机质含量和微生物数量相对于CK 显著降低( P < 0. 05) 。其中,有机质含量在焚烧后减少11. 0%—22. 1%,真菌数量降低
30. 8%—56. 1%,细菌数量降低50. 6%—72. 6%,放线菌数量降低46. 9%—68. 3%。土壤全效和速效养分含量显著增加( P <
0. 05) : 全磷含量增加6. 5%—12. 9%,全钾含量增加4. 6%—18. 1%,全氮含量增加2. 6%—13. 2%。速效磷含量增加9. 8%—
39. 1%,速效钾含量增加13. 2%—39. 1%,铵态氮含量增加8. 6%—38. 7%,硝态氮含量增加1. 4%—9. 2%。各指标的变化幅
度随焚烧量的增多而加大( A3 > A2 > A1) 。玉米生育期内,焚烧处理的土壤有机质含量平均恢复5. 6% ( A1 > A2 > A3) 。与有
机质相比,焚烧处理土壤微生物数量恢复程度较高,其中细菌的恢复速率最快。在玉米苗期各焚烧处理的真菌、细菌和放线菌
平均数量相对于CK 依次降低12. 7%、17. 4%、11. 9%,在大喇叭口期和成熟期,微生物数量与CK 间差异不显著。速效养分含
量在玉米生育期显著高于CK。在玉米苗期、大喇叭口期和成熟期,相对于CK 速效磷含量平均增加24. 9%、27. 0%、29. 2%,速
效钾平均增加24. 0%、14. 1%、15. 2%,铵态氮平均增加25. 5%、23. 1%、20. 2%,硝态氮平均增加20. 8%、19. 2%、19. 8%。

Other Abstract

As a common treatment of waste straw,open straw burning is widespread in China,especially during harvest
seasons every year. Recently,many studies have focused on the effect of straw burning on the regional atmospheric
environment. However,there is relatively limited data on the change in the biochemical properties of soil. In order to better
evaluate the effects of field straw burning on soil organic matter content,microorganism quantity,and soil nutrient content,
a 4-month field trial was initiated in 2013. In the experiment,4 treatments were used with different amounts of wheat straw:
reduced burning ( 0. 24 kg /m2,as A1) ,normal burning ( 0. 48 kg /m2,as A2) ,and incremental burning ( 0. 72 kg /m2,
as A3 ) ,and no burning ( as CK) . The effects of burning treatments on soil organic matter content,microorganism
quantity,and soil nutrient content were measured by analysis of soil samples from 0—5 cm depth of topsoil,which werecollected 4 times on June 13th ( one day after straw burning) ,July 10th ( maize seedling stage) ,August 15th ( maize
tasselling stage) ,and October 8th ( maize maturity stage) . The results showed that there were significant changes in soil
organic matter content,quantities of fungi,bacteria,and actinomycetes,as well as total and available P,K,and N due to
the different burning treatments. The immediate effect of straw burning on these indicators was marked. The burning
treatments had adverse influences on soil organic matter and microorganisms. Compared with the CK treatment,soil organic
matter content decreased by 11. 0%—22. 1%. The quantities of fungi,bacteria,and actinomycetes decreased by 30.
8%—56. 1%,50. 6%—72. 6%,46. 9%—68. 3%,respectively. Soil total and available nutrient content increased
significantly ( P < 0. 05) . The content of total P,total K,total N,available P,available K,nitrate nitrogen,and
ammonium nitrogen increased by 6. 5%—12. 9%,4. 6%—18. 1%,2. 6%—13. 2%,9. 8%—39. 1%,13. 2%—39.
1%,8. 6%—38. 7%,1. 4%—9. 2%,respectively. Meanwhile,the study found these indicators showed an increasing
trend with the increase of burned wheat straw amount,namely in the order A3 > A2 > A1. Throughout the growth period
of maize,soil organic matter and microorganism quantity in the three burning treatments recovered to different extents. After
the maize growth period,compared with the previous stage after burning,soil organic matter content in burning treatments
recovered 5. 6% on an average in the order A1 > A2 > A3. The microorganism population restored to a higher degree than
that of organic matter. Bacteria had the fastest recovery rate among the three microbes. In the maize seedling stage,the
quantity of fungi,bacteria,and actinomycetes in the burning treatments was 12. 7%,17. 4%,11. 9% lower than that of
CK,respectively. At the maize tasselling and maturity stage,the microorganism quantities had no significant differences
between the burning treatments and CK,which indicated that the microbial quantities had reached the normal level two
months later after burning. Soil available nutrient content in the burning treatments was higher than that of CK during the
maize growth period. At the seedling,tasselling,and maturity stage,compared with the CK,the available P content
increased by an average of 24. 9%,27%,and 29. 2%; available K content increased by an average of 24%,14. 1%,and
15. 2%; ammonium nitrogen content increased at an average of 25. 5%,23. 1%,and 20. 2%; and nitrate nitrogen content
increased at an average of 20. 8%,19. 2%,and 19. 8%,respectively.

Keyword秸秆焚烧 有机质 微生物 土壤养分
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8642
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
田国成,王钰,孙路,等. 秸秆焚烧对土壤有机质和氮磷钾含量的影响[J]. 生态学报,2016,36(2):387-393.
APA 田国成,王钰,孙路,施明新,&吴发启.(2016).秸秆焚烧对土壤有机质和氮磷钾含量的影响.生态学报,36(2),387-393.
MLA 田国成,et al."秸秆焚烧对土壤有机质和氮磷钾含量的影响".生态学报 36.2(2016):387-393.
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