ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
降雨能量对东北典型黑土区土壤溅蚀的影响
胡伟1,3; 郑粉莉1,2; 边锋2
2016
Source Publication生态学报
Volume36Issue:15Pages:4708-4717
Abstract

溅蚀特征研究可揭示溅蚀发生机理,而现有研究大多用溅蚀量来表征溅蚀特征,不能全面准确地反应溅蚀作用过程。为
此,基于改进的试验土槽进行室内模拟降雨试验,研究降雨能量对坡面不同方向溅蚀量及溅蚀过程的影响。试验设计包括2 种
降雨强度( 50 mm/h 和100 mm/h) 和10 个降雨能量,其中10 个降雨能量是通过2 种降雨强度( 50 mm/h 和100 mm/h) 和5 个
雨滴降落高度( 3. 5,5
. 5,7
. 5,9
. 5、11. 5 m) 来实现的。结果表明: 在相同降雨强度下,坡面总溅蚀分量均随降雨能量的增加而增
大。次降雨坡面溅蚀量均为向下坡最大,其次为侧坡溅蚀量,而向上坡溅蚀量最小。当降雨强度由50mm/h 增加至100mm/h
时,坡面向上坡溅蚀量增加2. 3—5. 0 倍,向下坡溅蚀量增加1. 7—5. 1 倍,侧坡溅蚀量增加1. 9—4. 3 倍,总溅蚀量增加1. 9—4.
5 倍,净溅蚀量增加1. 2—6. 4 倍。对于不同降雨能量处理,坡面溅蚀率均表现为坡面产流前随降雨历时的增加而递增,产流后
迅速达到峰值,之后逐渐减小并趋于稳定。定量分析了各溅蚀分量、总溅蚀量、净溅蚀量与降雨能量的关系,提出了溅蚀发生的
降雨能量阈值,发现雨滴溅蚀发生的临界能量为3—6 J m- 2 mm- 1 ,且向上坡溅蚀量,向下坡溅蚀量,净溅蚀量和总溅蚀量皆与
降雨能量呈幂函数关系,而侧坡溅蚀量与降雨能量呈二次多项式关系。

Other Abstract

Splash erosion is an important form of soil erosion caused by the impact of raindrops. Raindrop kinetic energy is
the principal factor that affects splash erosion,and studies on splash characteristics can reveal splash erosion mechanics.
However,current studies only characterize the amount of splash erosion,which cannot accurately and comprehensively
reflect the splash processes. Therefore,this study examines the effects of raindrop kinetic energy on splash erosion processes
and on the amount of splash erosion from different directions on a hillslope. The experimental treatments included two
rainfall intensities ( 50 and 100 mm/h) and 10 rainfall kinetic energies that were obtained with a combination of the two
rainfall intensities and five raindrop falling heights ( 3. 5 m,5. 5 m,7. 5 m,9. 5 m,11. 5 m) ; the slope gradient was set
at 10°. In the experiment,all treatments were replicated twice. The soil used in this study was a Mollisol ( USDA system ofSoil Taxonomy) ,containing 3. 3% sand,76. 4% silt,and 20. 3% clay. The tested soil was collected from 0—20 cm depth
in the Ap horizon of a maize field in Liujia Town ( 44°43'N,126°11'E) ,Yushu City,Jilin Province,located in the center
of the Mollisol region in Northeast China. This study was completed in the rainfall simulation laboratory of the State Key
Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau,Yangling City,China. A side-sprinkle rainfall
simulator was used to apply rainfall and a soil pan was specially designed to measure both splash and sheet erosion. Results
showed that directional splash erosion increased with the increase of raindrop kinetic energy for a given rainfall intensity.
However,at each individual rainfall,the amount of splash erosion was in the order of downslope > lateral slope >
upslope. When rainfall intensity increased from 50 to 100 mm/h,the total splash and net splash erosion increased 1. 9—4.
5 and 1. 2—6. 4 times,respectively; splash erosion on the upslope,downslope,and lateral slope were enhanced 2. 3—5.
0,1. 7—5. 1,and 1. 9—4. 3 times,respectively. For all rainfall kinetic energies,splash erosion rate gradually increased
with rainfall duration; when runoff occurred,splash erosion rate reached the maximum value,and then gradually decreased
until reaching a steady state. According to the relationships between directional,total,and net splash erosion and rainfall
kinetic energy,the critical energy for splash erosion initiation was 3—6 J m- 2 mm- 1 . Splash erosion increased with an
increase in raindrop kinetic energy above the critical value. Furthermore,the relationship between raindrop kinetic energy
and upslope,downslope,total,and net splash erosion was expressed by power function,while raindrop kinetic energy had
a quadratic polynomial relationship with lateral splash erosion.

Keyword降雨能量 溅蚀 溅蚀过程 总溅蚀量 净溅蚀量 典型黑土区
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8639
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,
2.西北农林科技大学,资源环境学院
3.中国科学院大学
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
胡伟,郑粉莉,边锋. 降雨能量对东北典型黑土区土壤溅蚀的影响[J]. 生态学报,2016,36(15):4708-4717.
APA 胡伟,郑粉莉,&边锋.(2016).降雨能量对东北典型黑土区土壤溅蚀的影响.生态学报,36(15),4708-4717.
MLA 胡伟,et al."降雨能量对东北典型黑土区土壤溅蚀的影响".生态学报 36.15(2016):4708-4717.
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