ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
加气灌溉改善大棚番茄光合特性及干物质积累
李元1,3; 牛文全1,2,3,4; 吕望2,3; 古君1,3; 邹小阳3,4
2016
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume32Issue:18Pages:125-132
Abstract

为揭示不同加气灌溉参数对作物光合特性及干物质积累的影响规律,以番茄为研究对象,研究了不同土壤加气
量与加气深度组合对番茄光合作用、叶绿素含量、干物质积累及产量的影响。结果表明,对番茄根区土壤加气可显著提
高叶片叶绿素含量和气孔导度,增强光合作用,增加干物质积累及产量。随加气量的升高,大棚番茄净光合速率总体上
呈先升高后降低的趋势。15 和40 cm 滴管带埋深下,标准加气量(49.4 L/m2)下2 次测定净光合速率平均较不加气处理
升高21.4%和65.0%。滴灌带埋深为15 cm 时,叶绿素含量、干物质积累量及产量随加气量的升高呈先升高后降低趋势,
标准加气量下较不加气处理分别提升38.0%、55.4%和59.0%,滴灌带埋深为40 cm 时随加气量的升高呈持续升高趋势,
1.5 倍标准加气量(74.2 L/m2)处理较不加气处理分别提升33.7%、36.2%和105.4%。综合考虑,当滴灌带埋深为15 cm
时,宜采用标准加气量作为加气标准,而埋深为40 cm 时,最佳加气量为1.5 倍标准加气量。

Other Abstract

It is well known that most plants’ roots require an adequate and continuous supply of oxygen in soil to respire, grow,
develop, and function normally. Industrial agriculture has developed rapidly but is accompanied by excessive irrigation and
fertilization, minimal tillage and agricultural machinery driving over the soil. All these farming activities can result in soil
compaction. In compacted soil, the increase in soil bulk density and the accompanying decrease in porosity can hinder the
exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases between the atmosphere and the soil, thereby causing hypoxic stress in
plant roots. In addition to compaction, some natural factors, such as extraordinarily high groundwater table, long-term rainfall
and tillage under clay or clay loam conditions, can often lead to soil oxygen content reduced, which limits crop yield and
quality improvement. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) are one of the most vulnerable mesophytes to hypoxia in the root
environment. Soil aeration has been found to be very useful in overcoming problems associated with hypoxia in the root-zone
of irrigated crops including tomato, cotton, cucumber and zucchini. Over a range of soil water contents and soil types, the
performance of crops can be improved under oxygen-deficient conditions. It is hypothesized that varying the aeration volume
and burial depths of drip irrigation tubes (aeration position) would result in the different soil air environment in the root-zone.
To date, there are no reports in the literature which specifically examined the sensitivity of tomato plants to soil aeration
volume and burial depths of drip irrigation tubes in Lou soil, and the effect on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter
accumulation. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Yangling (E108°02′, N34°17′), Shaanxi, between October,
2014 and May, 2015. The tested variety of tomato was Fenyuyanggang (New Horizon Facilities Agricultural Development Co.
Ltd., Northwest A&F University, China). Air was used for soil aeration, and the soil for the test was a silty clay loam (soil
order was Inceptisol based on the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) soil taxonomy). The volume of air in each
plot was injected into the drip tubing via a manifold connected to the air compressor. The experiment was designed to study
the responses of photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content and dry matter accumulation of greenhouse-produced
tomato to 4 aeration volumes in combination with 2 depths of drip-tubing placed in the soil. The drip irrigation placement
depths were respectively 15 and 40 cm below the surface of the ridge. Artificial aeration treatments were 0, 24.6, 49.4 and
74.2 L/m2, respectively. Results showed that drip tubing placement and artificial aeration treatments significantly affected
photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content and dry matter accumulation. The changing trend of net photosynthetic rate
showed an increase at first and then a decrease with the increase of aeration volume at both 15 and 40 cm depth of the tube.
Chlorophyll a and dry matter accumulation of tomato also showed an increase firstly and then a decrease with the increase of
aeration volume at 15 cm depth of the tube. However, chlorophyll a and dry matter accumulation increased with the increasing
of the volume of aeration at 40 cm depth of the tube. Synthesizing each kind of situation, both 15 and 40 cm depth of the tube
could apply to artificial soil aeration. The optimum artificial aeration volume was 49.4 L/m2 at the 15 cm deep of the tube.
However, at the 40 cm deep of the tube, 74.2 L/m2 aeration volume was better than the other treatments. For the observed
responses, the information on how the tomato adapts to artificial soil aeration will provide guidance for field production
practices as well as indications of possible mechanisms.

Keyword灌溉 光合作用 土壤 根区加气 地下滴灌 叶绿素 干物质积累 番茄
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8632
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院
3.西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院
4.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李元,牛文全,吕望,等. 加气灌溉改善大棚番茄光合特性及干物质积累[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(18):125-132.
APA 李元,牛文全,吕望,古君,&邹小阳.(2016).加气灌溉改善大棚番茄光合特性及干物质积累.农业工程学报,32(18),125-132.
MLA 李元,et al."加气灌溉改善大棚番茄光合特性及干物质积累".农业工程学报 32.18(2016):125-132.
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