ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土塬区盛果期苹果园的蒸散特征
王石言1,2; 王力1,2; 韩雪2; 张林森3
2016
Source Publication林业科学
Volume52Issue:1Pages:128-135
Abstract

【目的】水分是黄土高原地区植被恢复与农林产业持续发展的主要限制因子,通过对半湿润长武塬区苹
果经济林的蒸散研究,掌握苹果林生长季的蒸散耗水规律,为区域性苹果经济林的科学管理及充分挖掘苹果林的
生产潜力提供依据。【方法】运用水量平衡法于2012—2014 年生长季期间( 4 月15 日—10 月15 日) 对苹果园进行
蒸散量估算。其中,降水量由自动气象站实时观测,并结合人工观测数据,保证降水数据的连续性; 同时,于每月
15 日和30 日利用中子仪( CNC503B) 监测0 ~ 6 m 特定土层的土壤贮水量,其中0 ~ 100 cm 阶段土层按每10 cm 记
录读数1 次, 100 ~ 600 cm 土层按每20 cm 记录读数1 次,并利用土钻法进行校准。【结果】盛果期苹果园在生长
季内蒸散量呈明显的双峰曲线,第一峰值出现在7 月后半月或者8 月前半月,第二峰值出现在9 月前半月; 2012,
2013 和2014 年苹果生长季内的蒸散量占降水量的比例分别为103%, 104% 与99%; 2012 年的蒸散量高出降水量
12. 1 mm,2013 年的蒸散量高出降水量18. 2 mm,2014 年的蒸散量小于降水量1. 2 mm; 苹果园蒸散量在生长季内
的变异系数为1. 0 左右。【结论】在属于典型雨养农业区的长武塬区,自然降水是苹果经济林生态系统蒸散耗水
的主要水分来源,降水量的多少直接影响着苹果的质量与数量。在枯水年( 2012 年) 和偏枯的平水年( 2013 年) ,蒸
散量大于降水量,即降水输入不能满足果园蒸散需水,土壤贮水表现为亏缺状态; 在平水年( 2014 年) ,当年降水量
可以满足果园蒸散耗水的要求。黄土塬区苹果园土壤水及蒸散对降雨产生快速水文响应机制,降落到林地的雨水
迅速以土壤蒸发、植被蒸腾等形式进行水分输出。

Other Abstract

【Objective】Water is the main factor limiting vegetation restoration and sustainable development of agriculture
and forestry in Loess Tableland. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the evapotranspiration of an apple
orchard in the growth cycle,in order to provide a theoretical basis for scientific management of regional apple orchards and
the improvement of potential productivity. 【Method】Water balance method was used to calculate the evapotranspiration of
a young apple orchard in the Loess Tableland during growing season ( from Mid-April to Mid-October) in 2012 - 2014.
Rainfall was recorded in real time by automatic weather station in real time and calibrated in combination with manual
observation to ensure the continuity of rainfall data. The water storage capacity of soil in a profile of 6 m was measured
using a neutron probe ( CNC503B) on the 15th and 30th day of each month,for the 0 - 100 cm soil layer,the readings
were recorded by every 10 cm,and for the 100 - 600 cm soil layer,the readings were recorded by every 20 cm. Then the
soil water storage was calibrated with soil-auger-drilling method. 【Result】The evapotranspiration of the apple orchard
showed an obvious bimodal curve,with first peak in the second half of July or the first half of August,and the second peak
in the first half of September; The evapotranspiration accounted for 103%,104% and 103% of the total rainfall during
the growing seasons in 2012 - 2014,respectively. In addition,the evapotranspiration of the young apple orchard was12. 1 mm greater than rainfall in 2012,18. 2 mm greater in 2013,but 1. 2 mm lower in 2014. The variation coefficient of
evapotranspiration within a growth cycle was about 1. 0. 【Conclusion】The loess tableland is a typical rain-fed agricultural
area,where the water for evapotranspiration mainly comes from natural rainfall. Thus,the amount of rainfall could directly
affect the quality and quantity of the production of apple orchard. In dry ( 2012) and relatively dry ( 2013) years,as the
evapotranspiration was greater than the rainfall,the water supply from rainfall could not meet the water consumption by
apple orchard,resulting in deficit of soil water content. However,in a normal year ( 2014) with average precipitation the
water consumption of young apple orchard can be met. The soil water and evapotranspiration of apple orchard had a rapid
hydrological response to rainfall in the loess tableland,and rain water in the apple orchard can be rapidly transformed into
evaporation and vegetation transpiration.

Keyword黄土塬区 苹果园 水量平衡 蒸散 降水 土壤贮水量
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8620
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
2.黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
3.西北农林科技大学园艺学院
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王石言,王力,韩雪,等. 黄土塬区盛果期苹果园的蒸散特征[J]. 林业科学,2016,52(1):128-135.
APA 王石言,王力,韩雪,&张林森.(2016).黄土塬区盛果期苹果园的蒸散特征.林业科学,52(1),128-135.
MLA 王石言,et al."黄土塬区盛果期苹果园的蒸散特征".林业科学 52.1(2016):128-135.
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