ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素
张 静1,2; 王 力1,2; 韩 雪1; 张林森3
2016
Source Publication土 壤 学 报
Volume53Issue:6Pages:1421-1432
Abstract

蒸散是水量平衡和能量平衡的重要组成部分,也是农田生态系统水分消耗的主要途
径。为探究黄土塬区农田蒸散的日动态变化规律,运用涡度相关法、土壤水分及常规微气象观测系统
等,于2013年作物生长季(4—10月)对试验区农田作物(冬小麦、春玉米)蒸散特征及影响因素进
行分析。结果表明,降水对蒸散的影响较为显著,降水过后的日蒸散量较降水前会有所增加;农田
0~100 cm 土壤含水量变异系数较大,土壤水分变化剧烈,作物根系的集中分布范围在0~80 cm 之间,
因此0~100 cm 土壤水分主要参与蒸散过程;晴天蒸散的累积量大于阴天,晴天和阴天的日均蒸散量分
别为4.5、3.8 m m d -1 ,相差0.7 m m d -1 。阴天蒸散开始的时间较晴天晚,阴天条件下的蒸散更易受到气
象因子的扰动;不同天气条件下净辐射均为蒸散的主要影响因子,蒸散速率与净辐射变化趋势一致,
但在时间上滞后于净辐射;在不同的土壤水分环境条件下,蒸散的过程和强度差异较大,水分胁迫条
件下,全天蒸散量水平较低,“蒸散高地”的持续时间较长;而水分相对充足时,全天蒸散水平较
高,“蒸散高地”持续时间较短,维持较高的蒸散速率的时间较长。

Other Abstract

Evapotranspiration(ET)is a m ajor part of water balance and energy
balance,and is the m ain pathway of water consum ption in farm land ecosystem s. In X ianyang D istrict of
Shaanxi,the annual evapotranspiration accounts for about 90% of the annual precipitation. There are quite
a few m ethods for evaluating or m easuring evapotranspiration,such as eddy covariance,Bowen ratio and
m icroclim ate. Currently the eddy covariance m ethod is m ore widely used than the other two because it can
be used to m easure evapotranspiration continuously on an ecosystem scale,and to m easure sim ultaneously
various m eteorological factors and various com ponents of energy,as well,in m ost of the eddy-covariance-
related system s,which is conducive to analysis of relationships of various im pact factors with com ponents
of energy balance. The present study is oriented to explore basic laws of water m ovem ent in soils different in
land use,but under a sim ilar plant growth environm ent and also to find a scientific m ethod for estim ating
water consum ption in soil. 【M ethod】In order to explore laws of diurnal dynam ics of evapotranspiration and
its influencing factors in farm lands on loess tableland,with the help of som e soil water and conventional
m icrom eteorological observatory system s,the eddy covariance m ethod was used to analyze characteristics
of the evapotranspiration of the crops(winter wheat and spring corn)in the farm land studied during the
growing season(from A pril to O ctober)of 2013 and their influencing factors. 【R esult】Closure analysis
of energy balance in the studied area using the eddy covariance m ethod shows that the regression line was
0.54 in gradient and the determ ination coefficient R 2 0.80,both being in the ranges reported in m ost papers
in the literature. Soil m oisture is an im portant factor affecting evapotranspiration,and precipitation is
another. A fter a rainfall event,daily evapotranspiration would increase to a certain extent. Soil water content
in the 0~100 cm soil layer varied drastically with CV being quite high,while crop roots were distributed
m ainly in the 0 ~ 80 cm soil layer,so the soil water in the 0~100 cm soil layer was closely involved
in evaporation process. Cum ulative evapotranspiration was higher in a sunny day than in a cloudy day,
while evapotranspiration started later in a cloudy day than in a sunny day. The daily evapotranspiration was
4.5 m m d -1 on average in the sunny day and 3.8 m m d -1 in a cloudy day,with a difference being 0.7 m m d -1 .
M oreover,evapotranspiration in a cloudy day was m ore susceptible to the disturbance of m eteorological
factors. N et radiation was the m ain factor affecting evapotranspiration rate,regardless of weather conditions,
and the two varied in a sim ilar trend,but the latter lagged som ewhat behind the form er tem porally in variation
because it takes som e tim e for energy to flow. The regression equation for analysis of relationships between
evapotranspiration rate and its influencing factors in a sunny day does like:ET = 0.833R n + 0.513T a -
0.333v-0.486;and that in a cloudy day does like:ET = 0.858R n + 0.219V PD -0.001. Evapotranspiration
also varied drastically in process and intensity as affected by soil water regim e. 【Conclusion】The influence

Keyword农田 能量平衡 土壤水分 涡度相关法 蒸散
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8614
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,陕西杨凌 712100
2.黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,陕西杨凌 712100
3.西北农林科技大学园艺学院,陕西杨陵 712100
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张 静,王 力,韩 雪,等. 黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素[J]. 土 壤 学 报,2016,53(6):1421-1432.
APA 张 静,王 力,韩 雪,&张林森.(2016).黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素.土 壤 学 报,53(6),1421-1432.
MLA 张 静,et al."黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素".土 壤 学 报 53.6(2016):1421-1432.
Files in This Item: Download All
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素_张(690KB)期刊论文作者接受稿开放获取CC BY-NC-SAView Download
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[张 静]'s Articles
[王 力]'s Articles
[韩 雪]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[张 静]'s Articles
[王 力]'s Articles
[韩 雪]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[张 静]'s Articles
[王 力]'s Articles
[韩 雪]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: 黄土塬区农田蒸散的变化特征及主控因素_张静.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
This file does not support browsing at this time
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.