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黄土丘陵沟壑区典型小流域不同洪水类型侵蚀输沙效应
张乐涛1,2; 李占斌1,3; 肖俊波4; 王杉杉1,2
2016
Source Publication农业机械学报
Volume47Issue:8Pages:109-116
Abstract

不同降雨-径流格局下的土壤侵蚀响应是土壤侵蚀规律研究中的基本关系之一,以黄土丘陵沟壑区典型小流
域岔巴沟的一级支沟蛇家沟为例,分析了不同洪水类型驱动下的小流域侵蚀输沙过程。以蛇家沟水文站1961—
1969 年记录的45 次洪水事件为数据基础,选取洪水历时、次洪水径流深和洪峰流量作为洪水径流过程的特征指
标,运用K 均值聚类和判别分析相结合的方法,将全部洪水事件划分为3 种类型。其中,A 型洪水具有短历时、小
径流、低变率和中洪峰的特点,是最为普遍的类型。B 型洪水具有中历时、中径流、中变率和小洪峰的特点,发生频
率居中。C 型洪水具有长历时、大径流、高变率、大洪峰的特点,发生频率最低。洪水历时是决定洪水类型的主要
因素。不同洪水类型下的输沙模数、平均含沙量及最大含沙量由大到小依次分别为: C、B、A; C、A、B; C、A、B; 但其
差异并不显著( P > 0. 1) 。蛇家沟小流域的水沙关系趋于稳定,径流含沙量的变化可用流量的对数函数进行描述。
在径流量保持一致的情况下,不同洪水类型驱动下的输沙模数相对大小( A∶ B∶ C) 为1∶ 0. 93∶ 1. 22。当洪水历时延
长1. 7 倍时,其增沙作用达到极大值,输沙模数最大增幅为22%。研究结果可为流域洪水类型划分、全面科学评估
径流调控及利用的水土保持效益提供有益参考。

Other Abstract

Soil erosion responses under different rainfall and runoff patterns are fundamentals for the
studies of soil erosion mechanisms. To investigate the influence of flood regimes on soil erosion and
sediment yield at small watershed scale,a typical small watershed—Shejiagou catchment was selected to
conduct data collection and analysis,and Shejiagou is a first order tributary of Chabagou drainage basin
lying in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau. Based on 45 individual flood events recorded
at Shejiagou Hydrological Station during 1961 to 1969,all the flood events were categorized into three
regimes through a combined approach of K-mean clustering and discriminant analysis with three grouping
variables,including flood duration,event flood runoff depth and peak discharge. Regime A wascharacterized by short duration,small flood runoff depth,low flood variability and medium peak
discharge,which was the most common regime. Regime B was featured with medium duration,medium
flood runoff depth,medium flood variability and small peak discharge,which was of medium frequency.
Regime C mainly included flood events of long duration,large runoff depth,high variability,as well as
large peak discharge,which was of the lowest frequency. The regime of flood events was mainly
controlled by flood duration at the studied scale. Area-specific sediment yield,mean suspended sediment
concentration and maximum suspended sediment concentration driven by different flood regimes can be
ranked in the order of C > B > A,C > A > B,C > A > B,respectively. However,no significant difference
was found among the three flood regimes for the variables examined ( P > 0. 1) . The runoff-sediment
relationship was relatively constant at Shejiagou watershed, the variations in suspended sediment
concentration can be well described by the logarithmic function of instantaneous discharge. The sediment
output at watershed outlet was mainly controlled by event-based total flood runoff. Given that event flood
runoff depth was kept constant,the ratio of area-specific sediment yield driven by different flood regimes
( A∶ B∶ C) was 1∶ 0. 93∶ 1. 22. If the flood duration was increased by 1. 7 times,the flood regime-based
increase for sediment yield reached the maximum,and the maximum increase rate for area-specific
sediment yield was 22%. The results may provide beneficial evidence for categorization of individual
flood events,and overall rational-based evaluation on the soil and water conservation benefits brought by
runoff regulation systems at watershed scale.

Keyword洪水类型 小流域 侵蚀产沙 径流调控
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8589
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院大学
3.西安理工大学西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室
4.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张乐涛,李占斌,肖俊波,等. 黄土丘陵沟壑区典型小流域不同洪水类型侵蚀输沙效应[J]. 农业机械学报,2016,47(8):109-116.
APA 张乐涛,李占斌,肖俊波,&王杉杉.(2016).黄土丘陵沟壑区典型小流域不同洪水类型侵蚀输沙效应.农业机械学报,47(8),109-116.
MLA 张乐涛,et al."黄土丘陵沟壑区典型小流域不同洪水类型侵蚀输沙效应".农业机械学报 47.8(2016):109-116.
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