ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄土旱塬主要农林用地土壤水文特征对比
王石言1; 王力1; 张静2; 张林森3
2016
Source Publication中国水土保持科学
Volume14Issue:3Pages:11-18
Abstract

土壤水分是黄土高原地区植被恢复与农林产业持续发展的主要限制因子,为明确主要农林用地土壤水分变
化特征及其干化现状,利用CNC503B( DR) 中子仪,于2014 年4—10 月,对长武塬区19 龄果园、9 龄果园、玉米地及
小麦地0 ~ 600 cm 的土壤水分进行长期监测,并利用土钻法进行校准。结果表明: 1) 0 ~ 600 cm 土壤贮水量表现为
9 龄果园> 玉米地> 小麦地> 19 龄果园,均值分别为186. 5、183. 6、158. 6 和132. 8 cm,除9 龄果园与玉米地间差异
性不显著( P >0. 05) 外,其他农林用地土壤贮水量两两比较均呈显著性差异( P <0. 05) ; 2) 4 块样地浅层( 0 ~200 cm) 土壤
含水量波动程度为中等变异( 10% < CV < 100%) ,深层土壤含水量稳定性较高,为弱变异( CV < 10%) ; 3) 19 龄果
园的土壤水分消耗深度为500 cm,9 龄果园、玉米地与小麦地均为300 cm, 19 龄果园的雨水补给深度为250 cm,而9
龄果园、玉米地与小麦地均> 600 cm; 4) 19 龄苹果园土壤干化最严重,0
~ 200 cm 土壤干化程度呈季节性变化, 200 ~
250 和250 ~ 320 cm 土层分别为严重干燥化与强烈干燥化, 320 ~ 600 cm 呈极度干燥化,形成永久性土壤干层; 其次
为小麦地,0
~ 100 cm 产生临时性干层, 250 ~ 300 cm 发生强烈干燥化; 玉米地与9 龄果园干化程度较轻,在水分补
给不足情况下,只在土壤浅层产生临时性土壤干层。长武塬区农业结构由大田作物转向苹果经济林建设具有一定
理论基础; 但是,随着苹果林达到盛果后期,土壤贮水量亏缺,土壤干化严重,苹果经济林的经济价值及生态作用等
都将受到限制,需要采取合理用水措施及调整林分密度等科学方式,完成长武塬区经济与生态的可持续发展。

Other Abstract

[Background] Soil water is the main factor limiting the recovery of vegetation and the
sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the region of the Loess Tableland. Soil water
content in 9-year apple orchard,19-year apple orchard,corn field,and wheat field was investigated in
the Changwu Tableland to define the soil hydrological characteristics and soil drying state of main
cropland and orchard on the Loess Plateau. [Methods]The water storage capacity of soil in a profile of
600 cm was measured using a neutron probe ( CNC503B) from April to October in 2014. [Results]1)The 9-year orchard had the largest soil water storage in 0 - 600 cm soil profile,followed by the corn field,
wheat field and 19-year orchard in which soil water storage averaged 186. 5,183. 6,158. 6 and 132. 8
cm,respectively. There was no significant difference between the corn field and 9-year orchard,but
significant differences existed among other fields. 2 ) Soil water content in shallow soil layer ( 0 -
200 cm) for the 4 fields showed medium variation ( 10% < CV < 100%) ,while soil water content in
deep soil layer was relatively stable ( CV < 10%) . 3) The depth of soil water depletion for the 19-year
orchard was 500 cm,while the depths for the 9-year orchard,corn field and wheat field were all 300 cm.
The rain replenishment depth of the 19-year orchard was 250 cm,while the depths for the 9-year orchard,
corn field and wheat field were all deeper than 600 cm. 4) Compared with other fields,soil desiccation in
the 19-year orchard occurred most severely. Specifically,the 0 - 200 cm soil layer dried seasonally,the
200 - 250 cm and 250 - 320 cm soil layers dried severely,and the 320 - 600 cm soil layer dried
extremely. Thus,a persistent soil dry layer formed. Soil desiccation in the corn field and 9-year orchard
occurred seasonally,and a temporary soil dry layer formed in the shallow soil layer in the case of water
shortage. [Conclusions]It is scientific to transfer the agricultural structure of Changwu Tableland from
field crops to apple economic forest,but the soil-moisture storage will be absent and the soil drying will
be severe after the apple forest reaching the later stage of full fruit period,as a result,the economic value
and ecological effect of apple forest will be restricted,thus scientific methods shall be taken such as
reasonable water management measures and adjusting stand density to realize the sustainable development
of economy and ecology in the region of Loess Tableland.

Keyword黄土塬区 苹果园 土壤含水量 消耗和补充深度 土壤干层
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8585
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
3.西北农林科技大学园艺学院
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王石言,王力,张静,等. 黄土旱塬主要农林用地土壤水文特征对比[J]. 中国水土保持科学,2016,14(3):11-18.
APA 王石言,王力,张静,&张林森.(2016).黄土旱塬主要农林用地土壤水文特征对比.中国水土保持科学,14(3),11-18.
MLA 王石言,et al."黄土旱塬主要农林用地土壤水文特征对比".中国水土保持科学 14.3(2016):11-18.
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