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黄土高塬沟壑区农田土壤养分与作物产量 变化的长期监测
徐娜1; 党廷辉1,2; 刘文兆1,2
2016
Source Publication植物营养与肥料学报
Volume22Issue:5Pages:1240-1248
Abstract

【目的】土壤养分含量是反映土壤肥力状况的重要指标,对农田肥料投入和土壤养分进行长期定位监
测,有利于准确反映土壤养分变化趋势。利用黄土高塬沟壑区不同施肥监测区 10 年的长期监测资料,分析对比
不同监测区土壤养分含量和作物产量的变化,分析土壤养分、产量与施肥的关系,为当地农田生产的施肥管理
提供理论依据。【方法】 本研究试验监测区的农田管理完全参照大田管理模式,共设置四大试验监测区,包括
无肥监测区(CK)、化肥监测区(HF)、化肥有机肥监测区(HM)和农民地块监测区(NM),肥料均于作物播种前作为
基肥撒施。在每年冬小麦收获期 6 月中下旬,或玉米收获期 9 月中下旬,采集表层(0—20 cm)土壤样品,处理
后进行土壤养分的分析,并且在作物收获期测算作物产量以及植株地上部分的氮、磷、钾含量。【结果】与试
验前相比,CK 监测区土壤有机质降低 1.73 g/kg,HF监测区增加 1.97 g/kg,HM监测区增加 2.20 g/kg,NM 监测
区增加 1.44 g/kg;CK 监测区土壤全氮减少 0.08 g/kg,其他施肥监测区增加 0.05~0.13 g/kg;HF 监测区土壤碱
解氮增加 7.8 mg/kg,而其他监测区均不同程度地降低;HM 监测区土壤有效磷增加最为显著,增幅达到 11.86
mg/kg,HF 监测区增加 8.42 mg/kg,NM 监测区增加 3.06 mg/kg,CK 监测区增加 2.44 mg/kg;CK 监测区土壤速
效钾明显下降,降低 38 mg/kg 左右,NM 监测区增加最为显著,增加量为 27.5 mg/kg。对冬小麦而言,相比于
CK 不施肥区,HF、HM 和 NM 监测区都能够显著提高产量,但各施肥监测区之间产量差异不显著。农田养分
平衡分析表明,化肥和有机肥配施,可使土壤中 N、P、K 素均有盈余;只施化肥时会导致土壤 K 素亏缺严
重;当土壤长期不施用任何肥料时,土壤各养分元素均出现亏缺。【结论】在黄土高塬沟壑区,作物生育期降
水量及其分配、积温条件和肥力水平对小麦产量影响显著。施肥 10 年后,各施肥区土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷
和速效钾含量都有不同程度的提高,土壤碱解氮只有单施化肥的增加。无肥监测区由初始含量的最高水平最终
降至最低,证明了长期施肥对于土壤肥力的维持具有重要意义。另外,该地区农民地块存在过量施肥现象。

Other Abstract

【Objectives】 Soil nutrient contents are important indices of soil fertility, it is useful to reflect change
trends of soil nutrients via monitoring amounts of farmland fertilizers and soil nutrients regularly. Based on a 10-
year long-term monitoring experiment of different fertilization in the gully area of the Loess Plateau, the changes
of soil nutrients and crop yields were investigated and the relationships among them were analyzed. 【Methods】All the treatments in monitoring areas were under the field management measures. There were four treatment
areas, no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (HF), combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic
fertilizer (HM) and local farmland (NM). All the fertilizers were basal applied before sowing of crops. Soil
samples (0–20 cm) were collected in the middle June or September, and the crops yield and the NPK contents
of aboveground plants were calculated at the harvest. 【Results】After 10 years’ experiment, the contents of
soil organic matter were decreased by 1.73 g/kg in CK, increased by 1.97 g/kg in HF, 2.20 g/kg in HM and 1.44
g/kg in NM, respectively. The soil total N contents were decreased by 0.08 g/kg in CK, and increased by
0.05–0.13 g/kg in the treatments with fertilization. The soil available N contents were increased in HF, but
decreased in all the other treatments. The soil available P contents were increased obviously by 11.86 mg/kg in
HM. The soil available K contents were decreased by 38 mg/kg in CK but increased significantly by 27.5
mg/kg in NM. All the fertilization treatments could increase the wheat yields significantly compared to CK, and
there were no significant differences among the fertilization areas. Nutrient balance analysis showed that the
combined application of chemical and organic fertilizer had N, P and K surplus, the chemical fertilizer would
cause the deficiency of K, and all the nutrients would be in deficit without the fertilization. 【Conclusions】
The precipitation, thermal condition and fertilization levels influence the wheat yield significantly. The contents
of soil nutrients in the tillage layer(0–20 cm)are changed significantly after 10 years’ fertilization. The initial
soil nutrient contents of CK were the highest, however, they became the lowest after 10 years, which proved the
extremely importance of fertilization to keep soil fertility. The fertilization can increase the contents of soil
nutrients include organic matter, total N, available P and available K, the soil available N is reduced in all the
treatments except the chemical fertilization. The waste of fertilizer exists in local farmlands. It is suggested for
local farmers to reduce the amount of fertilizer appropriately.

Keyword长期监测 土壤养分 小麦产量 变化趋势
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8584
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐娜,党廷辉,刘文兆. 黄土高塬沟壑区农田土壤养分与作物产量 变化的长期监测[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报,2016,22(5):1240-1248.
APA 徐娜,党廷辉,&刘文兆.(2016).黄土高塬沟壑区农田土壤养分与作物产量 变化的长期监测.植物营养与肥料学报,22(5),1240-1248.
MLA 徐娜,et al."黄土高塬沟壑区农田土壤养分与作物产量 变化的长期监测".植物营养与肥料学报 22.5(2016):1240-1248.
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