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覆膜耕作方式对河套灌区土壤水热效应及玉米产量的影响
齐智娟1,3; 冯 浩1,2; 张体彬1; 周立峰2
2016
Source Publication农 业 工 程 学 报
Volume32Issue:20Pages:108-113
Abstract

通过设置垄作全膜、垄作半膜、平作全膜以及平作半膜 4 个覆膜耕作处理,探究不同覆膜耕作方式对河套灌区
土壤水热及春玉米产量的影响。结果表明:1)2 个生长季内垄作全膜处理各阶段土壤含水率和温度均最高,保水保温效
果明显。2)耕层土壤温度的变化规律和含水率的变化规律相反,随着土壤温度升高,土壤含水率逐渐降低。3)玉米生
育期内随着温度升高和作物耗水量增大,全膜覆盖和垄作耕作方式的蓄水保墒效果愈加明显;干旱条件下,耕作措施较
覆膜方式对地温的影响更为明显;而在水量充沛条件下,覆膜方式则表现出对地温更显著的影响。田间起垄耕作结合全
膜覆盖的种植方式,可以获得较高的穗行数和穗粒数,有利于干物质的积累,促进滴灌条件下玉米产量的形成,同时提
高水分利用效率,为河套灌区农业节水和玉米高产提供了技术依据。

Other Abstract

Soil hydrothermal condition is one of the most important factors affecting crop growth and development in
semi-arid areas. In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of different film and tillage technology modes on spring maize
yield and soil hydrothermal condition in Hetao Irrigation District. The experiment included four treatments: ridge tillage with
full film mulching (LQ), ridge tillage with partial film mulching (LB), flat tillage with full film mulching (PQ) and flat tillage
with partial film mulching (PB). The results showed that the soil moisture and soil temperature of LQ were higher (P<0.05)
than the LB, PQ and PB treatments in the whole growing stage in 2014 and 2015. The suitable soil thermal conditions in LQ
made plant grow vigorously, and it consumed large amount of soil water to enhance biomass and leaf area accumulation. In
addition, the full film mulching was more effective at enhancing component factors influencing yield and reserving water in
soil profile than partial film mulching, which resulted in higher yield and water use efficiency (WUE). There was an inverse
correlation between soil temperature and soil moisture in arable layer. With the increasing of temperature and crop water
consumption during growing period, LQ showed significant effect on soil water conservation. In 2014 and 2015, the soil
temperature was higher (P<0.05) in LQ than in other treatments while the lowest value was recorded in the PB treatment.
However, the soil temperature in LB was higher (P<0.05) than in PQ in 2014; it was opposite that higher soil temperature was
recorded in PQ compared with LB in 2015. It implied that tillage technology had a significant influence on average
temperature compared with mulching mode under drought conditions in 2014. Conversely, mulching mode played an more
important role in preserving thermal conditions than tillage technology during the humid year in 2015. Overall, ridge tillage
efficiently transferred and accumulated heat from shallow soil layer to deeper layers. Additionally, the higher the soil surface
temperature, the more significant the film insulation effect. LQ can not only enhance the number of rows per ear and grain
number, but also were conducive to the accumulation of dry biomass, promote the formation of maize yield under drip
irrigation, and increase water use efficiency. LQ efficiently promoted water infiltration and regulated the surface temperature
resulting in soil moisture conservation and evaporation inhibition. These effects were much clearer and more consistent with
ridge tillage. In addition, full plastic film mulch had an insulation effect compared with partial plastic film mulch, and thus
thermal energy could be effectively transferred and stored at the tillage layer where it was essential for maize growth. This
study could provide a theoretical basis for improving soil hydrothermal conditions in Hetao Irrigation District and thus enhance
crop productivity and quality.

Keyword灌溉 土壤 水分 滴灌 耕作方式 覆膜 土温 玉米
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8570
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心,杨凌 712100
2.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院,杨凌 712100
3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
齐智娟,冯 浩,张体彬,等. 覆膜耕作方式对河套灌区土壤水热效应及玉米产量的影响[J]. 农 业 工 程 学 报,2016,32(20):108-113.
APA 齐智娟,冯 浩,张体彬,&周立峰.(2016).覆膜耕作方式对河套灌区土壤水热效应及玉米产量的影响.农 业 工 程 学 报,32(20),108-113.
MLA 齐智娟,et al."覆膜耕作方式对河套灌区土壤水热效应及玉米产量的影响".农 业 工 程 学 报 32.20(2016):108-113.
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