ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
黄河内蒙古支流“十大孔兑”区风蚀强度时空变化特征
孙宝洋1; 李占斌1,2,3; 张洋2; 马波1; 张乐涛3
2016
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume32Issue:17Pages:112-119
Abstract

十大孔兑的风蚀作用过程为河道输沙提供了重要的泥沙来源。为揭示十大孔兑风蚀作用规律,选取3 种典型下
垫面建立风蚀监测小区,利用侵蚀针法对研究区风蚀量及地表形态进行了为期1 a 的实地监测。在此基础上,综合当地气
象资料,分析研究区风蚀强度及地表形态变化规律,结果表明:1)研究区风蚀强度与平均极大风速呈指数关系,10-11
月和4-5 月风蚀强度大于全年其他时间,4-5 月风蚀强度最大,是全年平均风蚀强度的2~3 倍;2)土壤可蚀性颗粒
含量大小分别为库布齐沙漠区(94.95%)>黄土丘陵沟壑区(62.18%)>黄河南岸冲积平原区(44.51%)。库布齐沙漠区
属于中度风蚀,黄土丘陵沟壑区和黄河南岸冲积平原区属于轻度风蚀,十大孔兑3 种地形年累积风蚀量估算结果分别为
8.74、5.95 和5.16 Mt,风沙入黄所占总量比例分别为44.03%、29.97%和26.00%;3)研究区风蚀发生的方向主要为东南
方向,监测小区的风蚀过程主要为堆积-吹蚀-推移-再堆积,地表起伏度随风蚀强度增加呈线性增加趋势(R2=0.78,P<0.05)。
研究结果可为防治十大孔兑泥沙淤积与合理配置水土保持措施提供科学依据。

Other Abstract

Wind erosion is widespread in arid and semiarid regions around the world and it has been considered as a serious
environmental threat that leads to change in global biochemical cycles, decline in agricultural productivity, and contributes to
climate change. Aeolian erosion provides abundant eroded sediments for channel sediments delivery in the ten small tributaries.
In order to reveal the mechnism of wind erosion in the region of ten small tributaries, three plots were established in
Dongliugou watershed of the ten small tributaries in Inner Mongolia. The first monitoring plot (40°18′28″N, 110°30′57″E) was
located in the criss-cross region of farmland and moving dune, the second monitoring plot (40°09′52″ N, 110°28′5″ E) was
located in moving dune and the third monitoring plot (40°04′19″ N, 110°28′17″ E) was located in the criss-cross region of
fixed and moving dune. The amounts of wind erosion and the change of surface shape were monitored by the method of pins
measurement for 1 year. Combining the local meteorological data with the monitoring data, spatial and temporal variation of
wind erosion intensity was analyzed by using the technologies of ArcGIS and Surface 8.0. The results showed that: 1) The
average intensity of wind erosion from the plots during the months from April to May in 2014 were 11.54×10-3, 21.11×10-3,
and 9.35×10-3 kg/(m2·d), respectively, and that from October to November in 2013 were 2.96×10-3, 7.03×10-3 and 2.29×10-3
kg/(m2·d), respectively. The intensity of wind erosion from April to May was 2-3 times stronger than the annual average
intensity. The intensity of wind erosion was exponentially related with the maximum wind velocity in the study area. Based on
the temporal variation of cumulative wind erosion of the monitoring plots, the proportion of sediments into Yellow River
through wind erosion was 60.44% (spring)> 18.22% (autumn)> 15.75% (summer)> 5.59% (winter) in the region of ten small
tributaries; 2) The wind erosion modulus of 3 monitoring plots were 1149.75, 1821.35 and 3164.55 t/(km2·a), respectively. The
contents of erodible particles was 94.95% (midstream)> 62.18% (upstream)> 44.51% (downstream), thus the amounts of wind
erosion of middle reaches (216.71 kg) were significantly higher than upper reaches (78.81 kg) and downstream (124.76 kg) in
the region of ten small tributaries. In this study, the amounts of wind erosion of downstream were significantly higher than
upstream although the contents of erodible particles in upper reaches were more than downstream. It was caused by land use
patterns and human disturbance; 3) The area of Kubuqi desert was moderate wind erosion, the region of Loess hilly and gully
and the South Bank of the Yellow River alluvial plain area were mild wind erosion. It’s estimated that the three surface
cumulative amounts of wind erosion were 8.74, 5.95 and 5.16 Mt, the proportion of sand blown by the wind into the Yellow
were account for 44.03%, 29.97% and 26.00%; 4) The main direction of wind erosion was from northwest to southeast, and the
process of wind erosion was accumulation, erosion, passage, and then deposition. The surface amplitude of midstream was
significantly increased from April to May and form October to November, but hardly changed in the other months. Surface
amplitude was linearly correlated with intensity of wind erosion (R2=0.78, P<0.05). Wind erosion has the ability to restore
surface. The study may provide evidences for preventing increasing sediments for the river channel from the region of the ten
small tributaries and to formulate reasonable soil and water conservation measures.

Keyword侵蚀 土壤 风蚀强度 时空变化 地表形态
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8560
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.西安理工大学西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室
3.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙宝洋,李占斌,张洋,等. 黄河内蒙古支流“十大孔兑”区风蚀强度时空变化特征[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(17):112-119.
APA 孙宝洋,李占斌,张洋,马波,&张乐涛.(2016).黄河内蒙古支流“十大孔兑”区风蚀强度时空变化特征.农业工程学报,32(17),112-119.
MLA 孙宝洋,et al."黄河内蒙古支流“十大孔兑”区风蚀强度时空变化特征".农业工程学报 32.17(2016):112-119.
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