ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
地形对黑土区典型坡面侵蚀―沉积空间分布特征的影响*
杨维鸽1,3; 郑粉莉1,2; 王占礼1,2; 韩勇1,3
2016
Source Publication土壤学报
Volume53Issue:3Pages:572-581
Abstract

研究地形对黑土区坡面侵蚀-沉积空间分布特征的影响可以为水土保持措施配置提供
科学依据。以典型黑土区——黑龙江省宾县东山沟小流域为研究区域,在流域上游、中游和下游各选
取2个典型坡面,坡面种植作物均为玉米。典型坡面坡顶、坡上、坡中、坡下和坡脚的平均坡度分别为
3.1°,3.0°,4.0°,2.8°,1.2°。利用137Cs示踪技术,分析了坡度、坡长和坡形对坡面侵蚀—沉积空间分
布特征的影响。结果表明:研究流域农耕地坡面以侵蚀为主,平均侵蚀速率为448 t km -2 a-1;坡面不同
部位土壤侵蚀—沉积分布特征差异明显,坡顶、坡上、坡中和坡下主要表现为侵蚀,平均侵蚀速率分
别为819、376、1 000和634 t km-2 a -1,而坡脚表现为明显的沉积,平均沉积速率为-1382 t km-2 a -1。
不同坡形坡面侵蚀-沉积分布存在差异,凸形坡坡面表现为先侵蚀后沉积的分布特征,而复合坡坡面
呈现出侵蚀-沉积交错分布特征;坡面土壤侵蚀速率与坡度和坡长均呈极显著的幂函数关系,而坡度
对黑土区坡面侵蚀的影响明显大于坡长,反映了即使在长坡缓地形的黑土区坡度对侵蚀的影响仍然有
重要作用。因此,在黑土区配置合理的水土保持措施时,应尽量削弱坡度对坡耕地土壤侵蚀的影响。

Other Abstract

The knowledge about impacts of the topography on soil erosion and deposition on hillslope in the
typical of the black soil region may serve as a scientific basis for arrangement of soil and water conservation measures
in small catchments. However,currently,litter is available in literatures related the effects of topography factors
(the slope position,slope gradient,slope length and slope shape)on spatial distribution of soil erosion and
deposition on hillslope in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. This paper,based on the 137Cs trace
technique and Zhang Xinbao’s mass balance model,studied on quantitatively spatial distribution characteristics
of hillslope soil erosion and deposition and analyzed influences of topography factors on soil erosion rate. A small
catchment,called Dongshangou,located at Bin county,Heilongjiang Province,was selected and a total of
76 soil samples were collected at various position from six typical slopes profiles which located at the upper,
middle and down streams,respectively,in additional,8 background samples,for analysis of 137Cs activity with
a gamma-ray spectrometry and for estimation soil erosion-deposition rates with Zhang’s mode. Results show that
soil erosion and deposition rates on corn-cultivated hillslopes ranged from -4 685 t km-2 a-1 to 3 417 t km-2 a-1(+
means soil erosion and-means soil deposition)and with a mean of 448 t km-2 a-1,and the sampling sites where
soil erosion and deposition occurred accounted for 60.5% and 39.5% of the total in number,which indicated that
the catchment was dominated with soil erosion. Distribution of soil erosion and deposition varied significantly with
slope position. The entire hillslope,including the top,upper,middle and lower slopes,were dominated with soil
erosion,with erosion rate varying in the range of 38 t km-2 a-1 to 3 318 t km-2 a-1;and averaged to be 819,376,
1 000,and 634 t km-2 a-1,at the top,upper,middle and lower slope,respectively. Obvious deposition was observed
in the foot of a slope,varying in the range of -107 t km-2 a-1 to -4 685 t km-2 a-1 and averaged to be -1 382 t km-2 a-1.
Moreover,distribution of hillslope soil erosion and deposition also varied with shape of the slope. On convex slopes,
soil erosion came first and then followed by deposition;while on the complex slopes,soil erosion and deposition
distributed alternatively along the hillslopes. In addition,soil erosion rate exhibited significant power function
relationships with slope gradient and slope length;and it increased with increasing slope gradient and slope length.
The effect of slope gradient was much greater than that of slope length on soil erosion rate. Therefore,it is essential to
mitigate as much as possible the effect of slope gradient erosion on soil erosion in slope farmland in arranging soil and
water conservation practices in the black soil region.

Keyword土壤侵蚀速率 坡度 坡长 坡形 典型黑土区
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8548
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
3.中国科学院大学
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨维鸽,郑粉莉,王占礼,等. 地形对黑土区典型坡面侵蚀―沉积空间分布特征的影响*[J]. 土壤学报,2016,53(3):572-581.
APA 杨维鸽,郑粉莉,王占礼,&韩勇.(2016).地形对黑土区典型坡面侵蚀―沉积空间分布特征的影响*.土壤学报,53(3),572-581.
MLA 杨维鸽,et al."地形对黑土区典型坡面侵蚀―沉积空间分布特征的影响*".土壤学报 53.3(2016):572-581.
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