ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956-2013)
不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征
王计磊1; 吴发启2
2016
Source Publication土壤学报
Volume53Issue:6Pages:1389-1398
Abstract

土壤抗侵蚀能力特征是土壤侵蚀预测预报的重要依据之一,为了分析黄土区不同生长
期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征,采用原状土冲刷槽和静水崩解法,分别在大豆不同生长期测定坡
耕地不同土层土壤抗冲性和抗蚀性,并对大豆根系特征与土壤抗侵蚀能力的关系进行分析。结果表
明:随着大豆生育期的推进呈现出先增强后减弱的趋势,始粒期土壤抗侵蚀能力最强,苗期最弱;在
大豆苗期与分枝期,土壤抗侵蚀能力随土层深度的增加而减弱;大豆开花期以后10~20 cm土层土壤抗
侵蚀能力最强,其次为0~5 cm土层;土壤根重密度、根系表面积、根系体积及根系长度对土壤抗侵蚀
能力影响均达到极显著水平(p<0.01),且根径在0~0.5 mm之间根系的增多会更加有效地提高土壤
的抗侵蚀能力。这表明在大豆生长初期加强对坡面的有效防护,避免地表长期裸露,培育根系发达的
大豆品种将有助于对坡耕地土壤侵蚀的防控。

Other Abstract

【Objective】Soil erosion resistance is one of the main factors affecting development of soil
erosion. As the Loess Plateau is one of the most severe soil erosion areas in China,it is especially important
to characterize the soil erosion resistance of the region to management and control of soil erosion on the
Loess Plateau. Soybean,high in drought resistance,is one of the major crops commonly grown on the Loess
Plateau,and the one that grows in the season when heavy rain showers occur frequently,and consequently
soil erosion tends to take place in the region. Therefore,a field experiment was conducted to determine
characteristics of the erosion resistance of the soil and their relationships with soybean root system relative to
growth stage of soybean.【Method】Soil anti-scourability and anti-erodibility are two important parameters to
evaluate soil resistance. This study determined the soil anti-erosion ability characteristics based on soil antiscourability
and anti-erodibility. Based on the determination of the two indices,soil anti-scourability and antierodibility,
soil erosion resistance was characterized. As soil anti-scourability index and soil disintegration
rate can well reflect characteristics of soil anti-scourability and anti-erodibility,these two parameters were
selected to evaluate soil anti-scourability and anti-erodibility. Soil anti-scourability index refers to the time
it takes for rain water to wash off a gram of soil(min g-1),and soil disintegration rate to the amount of
soil disintegrated within a set unit of time(g min-1). The effect of soybean roots enhancing soil erosion
resistance is evaluated by measuring how much soil anti-scourability and soil anti-erodibility is enhanced
by the root system of soybean at different growth stages of the crop. 【Result】 Results show that soil antiscourability
and anti-erodibility varied with the crop growing,showing a similar trend.Soil anti-scourability
index increased significantly from the seedling stage to the pod bearing stage of the crop,peaked at the initial
grain forming stage,and then decreased somewhat from the initial grain forming stage till the grain filling
stage,while soil disintegration rate decreased significantly from the seedling stage to the pod bearing stage,
dropped to the bottom at the initial grain forming stage and then rose a little bit from the initial grain forming
stage till the grain filling stage. With the crop growing,soil erosion resistance displayed a decreasing order
of initial graining forming stage > grain filling stage>pod bearing stage> blooming stage> branching stage
> seedling stage. At the seedling and branching stages,soil erosion resistance was the highest in the 0~5cm
layer and the lowest in the 10~20 cm layer,but during the period from the blooming stage till the grain filling
stage,it was the highest in the 5~10 cm layer and the lowest in the 10~20 cm layer was worst from blooming
stage to seed-filling stage. However,soybean roots could significantly strengthen soil erosion resistance.
The effect was the lowest at the seedling stage and the highest at the initial grain forming stage. Soil erosion
resistance was significantly and positively related to root weight density,root volume,root surface area and
total root length. Therefore,soybean root system plays a key role in soil and water conservation and preventionof occurrence of soil erosion. Therefore,root weight density,root volume,root surface area and total root
length can also be used as the parameters to evaluate soil erosion resistance.【Conclusion】Soil erosion
resistance varies with the crop growing and depth in soil profile. It is quite low at the seedling and branching
stages and in the 0~5 cm soil layer. It is,therefore,recommended that measures be taken to strengthen soil
erosion resistance in the early growth period of the crop. Meanwhile,some rational agronomic management
measures,like mulching,use of cultivars that tend to have developed root systems,could also be adopted to
improve soil erosion resistance of soybean fields.

Keyword大豆 坡耕地 抗侵蚀能力 根重密度 根系长度
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8535
Collection水保所知识产出(1956-2013)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王计磊,吴发启. 不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征[J]. 土壤学报,2016,53(6):1389-1398.
APA 王计磊,&吴发启.(2016).不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征.土壤学报,53(6),1389-1398.
MLA 王计磊,et al."不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征".土壤学报 53.6(2016):1389-1398.
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