ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
坡面细沟侵蚀断面形态发育影响因素分析及动力特性试验
马小玲1; 张宽地1,2; 杨帆1; 杨明义2; 董旭1
2017
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume33Issue:4Pages:209-216
Abstract

研究细沟形态发育过程对认识细沟侵蚀具有重要作用,该文采用6 种坡度(2°、4°、6°、8°、10°、12°),5 种
流量(8、16、24、32、40 L/min)下的组合冲刷试验,系统研究了坡面细沟横纵断面形态发育影响机制及动力特性。结
果表明:细沟宽深比变化范围为3.006~4.884,根据水力最佳断面,细沟水流远未达到稳定。横断面形态系数随坡度的
变化范围为0.36~0.522,细沟横断面形态随流量、坡度以及冲刷历时均趋近于梯形水力最佳断面,即阻力最小的断面。
随着流程长度的增加,横断面形态由宽深逐渐变窄,横断面形态系数也随之减小。细沟纵断面形态范围为0.60~11.26,
且随坡度的增大而增大,与流量相关性不大。综合阻力系数及消能率均与细沟纵断面形态系数呈良好的幂函数关系。

Other Abstract

Rill erosion is the process of soil particles separating in the groove and handling by rill flow, and it is one type of
surface corrosion, and the rill formed can be completely filled by normal farming activities. In the loess plateau region, rill
erosion of slope accounts for more than 70% of the total erosion, and rill erosion is a major erosion in the loess plateau hilly
land, and is also an important part of mechanism of slope erosion prediction. Rills are small channels which function as both
sediment sources and sediment transport vehicles on hill slopes. It is a quantum leap during the process of soil erosion on
slopes, and is also the beginning of qualitative changes in the process of soil erosion. The rill morphology development plays
an important role in the understanding of rill erosion. Rill morphology changes have many influence factors in the process of
rill erosion, so systematically studying the relationship between rill shape coefficient and influencing factors can make us
better understand the process of rill erosion and erosion mechanism. For the study of rill morphological development process,
the combination scouring tests of 6 slopes (2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°) and 5 discharges (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 L/min) were
carried out, and the effect mechanism of rill transverse profile morphological development on the loess slope surface was
investigated, as well as the dynamic characteristics of the impact. The results showed that rill width-depth ratio ranged from
3.006 to 4.841, and according to the hydraulic optimum section, the rill flow was far from steady state. In rill erosion,
downward erosion and lateral erosion gradually transited to downward erosion. Because of incised and lateral erosion, rill
cross-sectional shape was gradually widened and deepened with the increase of slope and time. Along with the change of slope,
cross-sectional shape coefficient varied within the range of 0.36-0.522. Research showed that: The rill cross-sectional shape
was approximating to the trapezoidal hydraulic best section with the increase of the flow, slope and scour lasted time, namely
the section with the least resistance. With the increase of water flow length, cross section shape changed gradually from wide
and deep to narrow, and the cross-sectional shape coefficient was reduced. Through calculation, the groove profile form ranged
within 0.6-11.26, and increased with the increase of slope, but had no significant correlation with discharge. With the increase
of slope, the average spacing of drop pit on bed face decreased, the depth of drop pit increased, and the groove profile shape
coefficient increased. Comprehensive resistance coefficient and energy dissipation showed a good power function relationship
with groove profile shape coefficient, and with the increase of profile shape coefficient, the slope shape resistance increased.
Rill hydraulic characteristics and groove shape showed the role of mutual connection and restriction and reaction system.
Groove profile shape coefficient was larger, the bed surface shape resistance increased, and drop pit also would be developed
more maturely. The water in drop pit had strong turbulence and aeration, which had significant effect on energy dissipation.

Keyword侵蚀 试验 土壤 细沟形态 形态指标系数 跌坑 消能率
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8517
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马小玲,张宽地,杨帆,等. 坡面细沟侵蚀断面形态发育影响因素分析及动力特性试验[J]. 农业工程学报,2017,33(4):209-216.
APA 马小玲,张宽地,杨帆,杨明义,&董旭.(2017).坡面细沟侵蚀断面形态发育影响因素分析及动力特性试验.农业工程学报,33(4),209-216.
MLA 马小玲,et al."坡面细沟侵蚀断面形态发育影响因素分析及动力特性试验".农业工程学报 33.4(2017):209-216.
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