ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956-2013)
径流泥沙实时自动监测仪的研制
展小云1,2; 郭明航1,2; 赵军1,2; 赵向辉3
2017
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume33Issue:15Pages:112-118
Abstract

针对径流泥沙过程监测仪缺乏和监测误差大的状况,研制了一种具有野外复杂条件下普遍适用的径流泥沙高精
度实时自动监测仪,并建立了数据/站点管理云平台。该仪器从径流泥沙过程中提取驱动仪器运转的物理量并将其转换为
测控信号,实现径流泥沙过程的实时自动监测;通过对仪器总体结构及各功能部件的优化设计,消减泥沙粘附和沉积,
提高监测精度。通过标准泥沙样品验证了该仪器的适用性,结果表明该仪器监测的含沙量相对误差均值为3.67%,决定
系数为0.997。土槽试验获取了径流过程中变幅较宽的径流量和含沙量的动态过程曲线。可见,该仪器不仅可以准确地监
测径流泥沙过程,而且创新了水土流失监测技术和方法,推动了水土流失监测的自动化和信息化。

Other Abstract

Monitoring processes of runoff and sediment are the foundation of the dynamic assessment of soil erosion. Runoff
volume and sediment concentration are 2 important hydrodynamic parameters to forecast slope runoff variation, reveal soil
erosion mechanism and find out movement rule of soil in the field. However, the equipment which can be used widely to
monitor precisely the runoff volume and sediment concentration at the same time is lacking. In view of the inaccuracy or the
lack of equipment for automatic monitoring of runoff and sediment processes, real-time and automatic measuring equipment
with high precision was explored in this study. The equipment could be applied to multi-scenario, including runoff plot and
watershed. In our study, firstly, through the integration of signal sensing and automatic control technology, physical
characteristics driving the operation of the equipment were extracted and converted into TT&C signals to automatically
monitor runoff and sediment yield processes. On the one hand, continuous flow of runoff and sediment was discretized by
optimizing the design of equipment overall structure and the functional unit. On the other hand, optical material of sampling
device was used and the most reasonable shape and surface treatment of sampling device was designed, to reduce the
influences of sediment adhesion and deposition on the accuracy and precision of measurement. Finally, based on “internet+”
framework, a cloud station/data management platform was established, including station management, data integration,
calculation and analysis, and application service. The equipment was able to get the values of runoff volume and sediment
concentration synchronously, which overcame the limitation of tradition method. Furthermore, the reliability and applicability
of the equipment were validated by the simulation experiment, and the results showed that the relative error of sediment
concentration was averaged as 3.67%. Specifically, the relative error was averaged as 7.00%, when the sediment concentration
was less than10 kg/m3, and when the sediment concentration varied from 20 to 90 kg/m3 and from 100 to 300 kg/m3, the
averaged relative errors were 3.10% and 2.61% respectively. The relative error greater than 10% accounted for only 3.70% of
the total samples, while the relative error of the remaining 96.3% was less than 10%. The results also showed that the slope of
linear regression between measured and actual sediment concentration was close to 1, and the coefficient of determination was
up to 0.997. The research demonstrates that the equipment can detect precisely the dynamic processes of runoff volume and
sediment concentration. We also monitored the dynamic process of runoff volume and sediment concentration through soil bin
simulation experiment, and found that runoff volume varied from 19 to 127 L/s, with an average of 75.5 L/s, sediment
concentration ranged from 4.6 to 275.1 kg/m3, and sediment concentration in the single rainfall was, on average, 88.6 kg/m3.
The finding demonstrates that the equipment is capable of monitoring the large variation of runoff and sediment concentration,
and can be used to complex field observations, and therefore, the self-designed equipment for auto-sampling water from runoff
has a good prospect. This research can provide new techniques and methods for water and soil loss study, and promote the
automation and informatization in water and soil loss monitoring.

Keyword土壤 侵蚀 径流 含沙量 自动化监测
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8512
Collection水保所知识产出(1956-2013)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
3.西安三智科技有限公司
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
展小云,郭明航,赵军,等. 径流泥沙实时自动监测仪的研制[J]. 农业工程学报,2017,33(15):112-118.
APA 展小云,郭明航,赵军,&赵向辉.(2017).径流泥沙实时自动监测仪的研制.农业工程学报,33(15),112-118.
MLA 展小云,et al."径流泥沙实时自动监测仪的研制".农业工程学报 33.15(2017):112-118.
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