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雨滴机械打击和消散作用对土壤团聚体的破坏特征*
肖海1; 刘刚1,2; 赵金凡3; 蒙蒂凯诺4; 刘普灵1,2
2017
Source Publication土壤学报
Volume54Issue:4Pages:827-835
Abstract

土壤团聚体是土壤结构的基本单元,其稳定性是描述土壤抵抗侵蚀过程中破坏作用的
重要指标。但溅蚀过程中,雨滴对团聚体的消散和机械打击两种破坏作用的相对贡献及其破坏机制尚
未明晰。利用酒精和超纯水作为雨滴形成材料,模拟机械打击单独作用及消散和机械打击共同作用,
分别在五个高度(0.5、1、1.5、2和2.5 m)对塿土和黄绵土进行溅蚀实验。结果表明:当降雨动能相
同时,塿土的溅蚀率均小于黄绵土。同时,超纯水雨滴对土壤的机械打击和消散共同作用所导致的溅
蚀率均大于酒精雨滴单一机械打击作用的溅蚀率。随着降雨动能增加,两种雨滴对两种土壤的溅蚀率
均呈幂函数增加;团聚体因消散破坏作用和机械打击作用的溅蚀率均亦随之增加。但两种土壤的消散
破坏作用和机械打击作用的贡献率分别随着降雨动能增加而减小和增加。在相同降雨动能时,塿土消
散破坏作用的贡献率均大于黄绵土,而机械打击作用贡献率均小于黄绵土。研究结果对深入理解溅蚀
过程中团聚体破坏机理及评价溅蚀过程中团聚体稳定性具有重要意义。

Other Abstract

【Objective】Soil aggregate is a basic unit in soil structure and its stability is an important
index describing soil’s resistance to breakdown in the process of water erosion. However,in splash erosion
how raindrops function through mechanical impact and slaking effect on soil aggregates and what are the
mechanisms and contribution rates of the two are still unclear. This study is oriented to investigate effects
of mechanical impact and slaking effect of rain drops on breakdown of soil aggregates during splash erosion.
【Method】A series of indoor splash erosion experiments were carried out in the State Key Laboratory ofSoil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese
Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources,China. Samples of Loessal soil(Sandy loamy soil)
collected from Yan’an and Lou soil(Loamy loam soil)collected from Yangling in Shaanxi province,
two typical soils in the Loess Plateau,were tested in the experiments. A home-made needle type rainfall
simulator,consisting of three parts:water supply apparatus,needle nozzles and support frame,was used
to simulate rain drops of ultra-pure water and alcohol to determine effect of mechanical impact alone and
joint effect of mechanical impact and slaking on soil aggregates,separately. The splash erosion experiments
were designed to have two type of soils and 5 treatments in height for rain drops to fall,i.e. 0.5 m,1 m,1.5
m,2 m and 2.5 m.【Result】Results show that in the two soils soil aggregate stability exhibited an order of
MWDfw<MWDws<MWDsw. Slaking effect(Fast wetting)was the major mechanism of the breakdown of soil
aggregates,and followed by mechanical disturbance(Wetting and Shaking),and then chemical slaking
(Slow Wetting)in the end. The soil of loamy clay was higher than the soil of sandy loam in RSI(Relative
Slaking Index),suggesting the former is more susceptible to slaking effect than sandy loam soil,while the
latter is more to mechanical impact. In splash erosion,when rain drops fell from the same height,splash
erosion rate was lower in loamy clay soil than in sandy loam soil,and splash erosion rate caused by rain drops
of pure water through the joint effect of mechanical impact and slaking was higher than that caused by drops
of alcohol through mechanical impact alone in both soils. Regardless of pathways of the rain drops affecting
soil aggregates,splash erosion rate increased with rising kinetic energy of the rain drops,and power function
could be used to well describe the relationship between splash erosion rate and rain drop kinetic energy. The
splash erosion rates caused by slaking effect and/or mechanical impact of rain drops both increased with rising
rain drop kinetic energy or rising height where rain drops fell from. The slaking effect contributed more than
50% to the splash erosion rate,indicting slaking effect was the main factor causing aggregate breakdown
effect,but the slaking effect decreased in contribution to splash erosion rate with rising rain drop kinetic
energy,while the mechanical impact acted reversely. In the cases the same in rain drop kinetic energy,the
contribution of slaking effect was higher in loamy clay soil than in sandy loam soil,but that of mechanical
impact was just the reverse. 【Conclusion】Contribution rates of slaking effect and mechanical impact vary
with rain drop kinetic energy and soil type. All the findings in this study could be of great significance to
evaluation of aggregate stability and to in-depth understanding of the mechanism of aggregate breakdown
during splash erosion.

Keyword溅蚀 团聚 降雨动能 消散作用 机械打击
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8486
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
3.三峡大学水利与环境学院
4.四川农业大学林学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
肖海,刘刚,赵金凡,等. 雨滴机械打击和消散作用对土壤团聚体的破坏特征*[J]. 土壤学报,2017,54(4):827-835.
APA 肖海,刘刚,赵金凡,蒙蒂凯诺,&刘普灵.(2017).雨滴机械打击和消散作用对土壤团聚体的破坏特征*.土壤学报,54(4),827-835.
MLA 肖海,et al."雨滴机械打击和消散作用对土壤团聚体的破坏特征*".土壤学报 54.4(2017):827-835.
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