ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
延河流域极端暴雨下侵蚀产沙特征野外观测分析
焦菊英1,2; 王志杰2,3; 魏艳红2; 苏嫄1,3; 曹斌挺1; 李玉进1
2017
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume33Issue:13Pages:159-167
Abstract

针对黄土高原目前侵蚀环境明显改善条件下能否经受得住极端暴雨事件的考验及可能出现的问题,该文依据在
延河6 个典型小流域的植被调查及土壤侵蚀监测结果,分析了2013 年极端暴雨条件下延河流域不同尺度的侵蚀产沙特征。
结果表明,天然乔木(辽东栎和三角槭)植被的平均侵蚀强度<1 000 t/km2
,自然灌木植被在1 118.1~1 161.2 t/km2
之间,
演替中后期的草本植被在1 245.2~1 827.8 t/km2
之间,而演替中前期的草本植被在3 087.6~4 408.4 t/km2
之间;人工灌木
林(2 119.7~2 183.9 t/km2
)比人工乔木林(2 625.7~5 149.6 t/km2
)具有较强的减蚀能力。坡面良好的植被覆盖能有效
抵御暴雨侵蚀,小流域坡面平均侵蚀强度基本<2 500 t/km2
;但滑坡侵蚀占主导地位,占各小流域侵蚀总量的49.0%~ 88.5%,特别是距暴雨中心较近流域的南部2 个小流域的滑坡侵蚀可达7 290.3 和7 424.9 t/km2
左右。不同小流域内有6.4%~18.3%的侵蚀量淤积在沟道里;延河甘谷驿以上不同河段的淤积量为13.2~145.2 万t,平均占总侵蚀产沙量的15%。
延河甘谷驿控制区的侵蚀产沙强度变化在2 326.7~7 774.4 t/km2
之间,其中强度为5 000~8 000 t/km2
的面积占59.3%。
因此,加强沟间地径流蓄排措施,减轻坡面径流下沟对沟坡重力侵蚀的影响,是土壤侵蚀研究与防治中值得重视的问题。

Other Abstract

Aiming at whether the present erosion environment could withstand the test and possible problems under the
extreme rainstorm events on the Loess Plateau, the characteristics of erosion sediment yield at different scales in 2013 with
extreme rainstorm events were analyzed based on the vegetation investigation and soil erosion monitoring in Yanhe River
Basin. The average soil erosion intensity was < 1 000 t/km2 for the natural arbor vegetation (Quercus liaotungensis and Acer
buergerianum), from 1 118.1 to 1 161.2 t/km2 for the natural shrub vegetation, from 1 245.2 to 1 827.8 t/km2 for the
herbaceous vegetation in the middle-late stage of succession, while from 3 087.6 to 4 408.4 t/km2 for the herbaceous
vegetation in the early-middle stage of succession. In the artificial vegetation, the ability of reducing soil erosion for artificial
shrub vegetation (2 119.7-2 183.9 t/km2) was larger than the artificial arbor vegetation (2 625.7-5 149.6 t/km2). In particular,
the average coverage of the 6-8 years of artificial Robinia psendoacacia was only 30% due to the shorter afforestation time, so
the soil erosion intensity reached 5 141.6 t/km2. In the condition of the rainstorm in 2013, the average soil erosion intensity of
the slopes with good vegetation in all small watersheds was below 2 500 t/km2. The erosion intensity was mainly in the
category of slight erosion in the small watersheds of the southern and northern areas, and mainly in the category of mild and
moderate erosion in the small watersheds of the middle area. However, the landslide erosion was dominant, accounting for
49.0%-88.5% of the total erosion in small watersheds. The average landslide erosion intensity reached 7 357.7 t/km2 in the
southern area near the rainstorm center, 3 706.9 t/km2 in the middle area and 1 678.1 t/km2 in the northern area. There was
6.4%-18.3% of erosion amount deposited in the channels in different small watersheds. The sediment deposition amount was
13.2×104-145.2×104 t in different sections of riverbed in the upstream of Ganguyi Hydrological Station in Yanhe River Basin,
accounting for 15% of the total erosion sediment yield on average. The intensity of erosion sediment yield ranged from 2 326.7
to 7 774.4 t/km2 in the controlled area of Ganguyi Hydrological Station, of which the area with erosion sediment intensity of
5000-8000 t/km2 was 59.3%. In 2013, the calculated value of sediment discharge at the Ganguyi Hydrological Station was
0.228×108 t, while the measured sediment discharge was 0.243×108 t. By comparison, the calculated value was 0.015×108 t
smaller than the measured value with the relative error of 6.2%. Therefore, the results of this research were reliable. At the
present stage, the good vegetation cover of the hill slope could control rainstorm erosion effectively. The erosion type of the
sediment source of Yanhe Watershed was dominated by gravitational erosion in the condition of rainstorm. Therefore, in the
premise of protecting the achievements of the “Grain for Green” project, it should strengthen the storage and drainage
measures in the inter-gully to reduce the slope runoff flowing down the gully and prevent gravitational erosion of the gully
slope and the gully erosion. Then, it might effectively prevent soil erosion, and promote the realization of beautiful mountain
and river in future.

Keyword土壤 侵蚀 滑坡 极端降雨事件 植被恢复 侵蚀产沙
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8481
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保 持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
3.贵州大学生命科学学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
焦菊英,王志杰,魏艳红,等. 延河流域极端暴雨下侵蚀产沙特征野外观测分析[J]. 农业工程学报,2017,33(13):159-167.
APA 焦菊英,王志杰,魏艳红,苏嫄,曹斌挺,&李玉进.(2017).延河流域极端暴雨下侵蚀产沙特征野外观测分析.农业工程学报,33(13),159-167.
MLA 焦菊英,et al."延河流域极端暴雨下侵蚀产沙特征野外观测分析".农业工程学报 33.13(2017):159-167.
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