ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
施肥滴灌加速滴头堵塞风险与诱发机制研究
刘璐1; 牛文全1,2; 武志广2; 官雅辉3; 李元1
2017
Source Publication农业机械学报第
Volume48Issue:1Pages:228-236
Abstract

以2 种内镶片式迷宫流道滴头为研究对象,采用数学分析方法、扫描电镜/能谱分析技术( SEM-EDS) 和X 射
线衍射技术( XRD) 对不同水溶性肥料滴灌后滴头流量、堵塞物表面微形貌及其化学组分进行多角度分析,研究肥
料特性和流道结构对滴头堵塞过程的影响效应。结果表明: 肥料特性是决定堵塞类型和诱发风险的重要因素
( P < 0. 01) ,流道结构对堵塞的影响需双重考虑结构尺寸及结构类型; 当施肥质量分数小于等于0. 5% 时,施肥加
速滴头堵塞的效果较小且与肥料类型关系不大,当施肥质量分数在0. 5% ~ 2. 0% 之间时,各肥料滴灌适用性由大
到小依次为: 磷肥、尿素、钾肥、复合肥,当施肥质量分数在2. 0% ~ 3. 0% 之间时,尿素滴灌滴头流量降幅为
10. 26%,显著高于施加磷肥( 7. 85%) 、钾肥( 4. 07%) 和复合肥( 2. 74%) ; 施加尿素滴灌诱发滴头堵塞主要物质的
形成机理为分子态尿素析出物与水中悬浮颗粒物形成团聚体在较差流体的运动粘度下造成的物理堵塞,磷肥主要
为吸附作用加速肥料杂质团聚沉淀的物理、化学堵塞,硫酸钾施肥滴灌主要为离子交换形成的钙、镁沉淀导致流道
壁面糙度升高、过水断面减小的化学堵塞过程,复合肥诱发滴头堵塞风险最低。施肥滴灌存在诱发或者加速滴头
堵塞的风险,但不同肥料诱发滴头堵塞主要物质的形成机理不同,加速堵塞的风险也不同,故对于不同的肥料类型
宜采用不同的抗堵塞管理策略。

Other Abstract

The inducing mechanism of emitters clogging with fertigation was explored. A laboratory
experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three factors ( fertilizer types, fertilizer
concentration and flow path structure) on anti-clogging performance of drip emitters. The intermittent drip
irrigation experiment was studied by using two flow path types of non-pressure compensating emitters
( arc-shaped saw-tooth and cup-shaped saw-tooth) ,four levels of fertilization concentration ( 0. 5%,
1. 0%,2. 0% and 3. 0%) and four types of fertilizer ( urea,calcium superphosphate,potassium sulfate
and water soluble compound fertilizer) and the system was allowed to run for 20 h. The mathematical
analysis methods in combination with field scanning electron microscope ( FESM) ,energy dispersive
spectrometer ( EDS) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD) technology were then used to quantitatively and
qualitatively analyze the variations of the emitter's average relative flow rate,surface topographical
characteristics and components of the clogging materials internal emitters. Results showed that fertilizer
characteristic was an important factor in deciding the emitter clogging type and degree ( P < 0. 01) ,and
the influence of the two flow path structures on the accelerating effect of emitter clogging performanceneeded to consider the path structural size and style. The accelerating effect of fertilizer application on
emitter was not obvious when the concentration of fertilizer solution was less than 0. 5%. When the
concentration was increased to 0. 5% ~ 2. 0%,there were obvious changes in the quantities of outflow
discharge occurred in phosphate-fertigation,which made it clog easily,followed with urea-fertigation,the
applicability of potassium-fertigation and compound-fertigation was better than that of the former. When
the concentration was risen to 2. 0% ~ 3. 0% or higher,the clogging degree was so serious with ureafertigation,
the flow rate was decreased by 10. 26%,which was significantly higher than those of
phosphate-fertigation ( 7. 85%) ,potassium-fertigation ( 4. 07%) and compound-fertigation ( 2. 74%) .
Fertilization can promote the clogging of the emitters. These fertilizer types had different water quality,
hence resulting into different emitter clogging risk and inducing mechanism. Emitters clogging with urea
fertigation were caused by the role of aggregation and adhesion with both crystallization of the molecular
urea state and suspended particles in the water. The adsorption function that particulate impurities to
phosphorus promoted flocculation while precipitation among solid particles was as a result of inducing
mechanism of emitter clogging with phosphate fertigation. The main inducing mechanism for emitter
clogging with potassium-fertigation was chemical precipitation because of the ion-exchange action,while
emitter clogging with compound-fertigation had the lowest risk. Therefore,fertigation with different
fertilizer types should adopt different emitter clogging controlling management strategy.

Keyword滴灌施肥 滴头 堵塞 风险 机理
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8464
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院
3.中科院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘璐,牛文全,武志广,等. 施肥滴灌加速滴头堵塞风险与诱发机制研究[J]. 农业机械学报第,2017,48(1):228-236.
APA 刘璐,牛文全,武志广,官雅辉,&李元.(2017).施肥滴灌加速滴头堵塞风险与诱发机制研究.农业机械学报第,48(1),228-236.
MLA 刘璐,et al."施肥滴灌加速滴头堵塞风险与诱发机制研究".农业机械学报第 48.1(2017):228-236.
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