ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
陕北黄土区退耕前(1976—1997)坡面切沟发育特征
陈一先1; 焦菊英1,2; 魏艳红1; 赵珩钪2
2017
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume33Issue:17Pages:120-127
Abstract

以陕北黄土区坊塌流域内7 条大切沟及其谷缘上的小切沟为研究对象,通过ArcGIS 和MATLAB 从基于1976、1997 年1:10 000 比例尺地形图生成的数字高程模型(DEM)上提取沟沿线,进而获得1976、1997 年大切沟的面积、周
长和大切沟上小切沟沟头前进距离,并结合当时的土地利用图和植被覆盖图,定量研究了退耕前陕北黄土区切沟发育
的速率,以及土地利用类型和植被覆盖度对切沟发育的影响。结果显示:在1976-1997 年间,7 条大切沟的面积、周
长增长率分别为11.01%~180.46%和8.07%~86.75%,大切沟上小切沟沟头年均前进速率为0.26~0.84 m;由溯源侵蚀
导致的小切沟沟头前进是研究区内大切沟上的主要侵蚀方式,大切沟沟谷拓宽和形成新的小切沟分别是对大切沟的面
积和周长增长具有较高贡献率的侵蚀方式;林草覆盖能控制切沟发育,集水区内覆盖度大于65%的植被能更加有效地
控制大切沟内以沟谷拓宽为主的、多过程、多部位的综合切沟侵蚀,覆盖度大于45%的植被能更加有效地控制大切沟
上小切沟沟头的溯源侵蚀。研究表明基于GIS 技术和不同年份的地形图,可以确定切沟侵蚀的方式及速率,实现对切
沟发育的动态监测。

Other Abstract

Gully erosion is a serious environmental problem and the primary source of sediment loss on the Loess Plateau.
However, due to the limited technologies and approaches for monitoring gully, most of the early studies focused on the
qualitative description of gully morphology and the division of gully development stages, confining the advancement of
quantitative research for gully erosion and leading to insufficient knowledge about gully erosion. The objective of this study
was to quantitatively estimate the gully development rates as well as assess the effect of land use and vegetation coverage in
upslope drainage area on gully development over 1976-1997 period, after which the Grain-for-Green Programme had been
completely implemented since 1999. The study area was in Fangta watershed in Ansai County (109°19’E, 36°52’N), which is
located in the northern Shaanxi hilly loess region. Seven large gullies, as well as the small gullies which occurred along the
large gullies, were selected along a transect placed randomly and throughout Fangta watershed. ArcGIS and MATLAB
software were used to obtain boundary lines of the selected large gullies based on the DEM (digital elevation model) derived
from topographic maps at the scale of 1:10000 in 1976 and 1997. By applying LOG (Laplacian of Gaussian) edge detection
approach in MATLAB, the gully boundary lines were initially extracted; furthermore, in order to improve the accuracy of the
boundary lines, visual interpretation based on the morphology reflected by contour line was conducted in ArcGIS. According
to the gully boundary lines, the area and perimeter of large gully and the head retreat distance of small gullies within each large
gully in 1976 and 1997 were calculated, respectively. Details about land use and vegetation coverage were extracted from the
historical maps of land use and vegetation cover, respectively. The results showed that the rates of area and perimeter
development of the 7 large gullies from 1976 to 1997 ranged from 11.01% to 180.46% and from 8.07% to 86.75%, respectively,
and the mean head retreat distance of the small gullies within a large gully varied from 0.26 to 0.84 m/a. Head retreat of small
gully caused by headward erosion was the dominant erosion form presented within a large gully in study area. In addition,
valley widening and forming new small gullies forming could significantly contribute to the area and perimeter development of
a large gully, respectively. Forest and grass coverage were both helpful to control gully development, especially when
vegetation coverage exceeded 65% in upslope drainage area, which was more effective for controlling multiple erosion
processes that simultaneously took place in a large gully, in which valley widening was mainly involved, as well as headward
erosion and sidewall expansion of small gully. However, vegetation coverage exceeding 45% in upslope drainage area could
only control the headward erosion of small gully effectively. Terrace could also control gully development and its efficiency
depended on scale and position of terrace on the slope. This study indicates that the forms and rates of gully erosion can be
determined based on GIS technology and topographic map, accomplishing the monitoring of gully dynamic development
before implementing the Grain-for-Green Programme.

Keyword土地利用 侵蚀 植被 切沟 沟沿线 退耕还林(草)
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8455
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈一先,焦菊英,魏艳红,等. 陕北黄土区退耕前(1976—1997)坡面切沟发育特征[J]. 农业工程学报,2017,33(17):120-127.
APA 陈一先,焦菊英,魏艳红,&赵珩钪.(2017).陕北黄土区退耕前(1976—1997)坡面切沟发育特征.农业工程学报,33(17),120-127.
MLA 陈一先,et al."陕北黄土区退耕前(1976—1997)坡面切沟发育特征".农业工程学报 33.17(2017):120-127.
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