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砾石覆盖对土壤水热过程及旱作小麦玉米产量的影响
王冬林1,2; 冯 浩1,2,3; 李 毅1,2
2017
Source Publication农业工程学报
Volume33Issue:7Pages:132-139
Abstract

为了揭示砾石覆盖对农田土壤水热变化及作物产量形成的影响,2013—2015 年采用小区试验法研究冬小麦-夏玉
米轮作条件下土壤水分变化、温度效应以及作物生长和产量之间的相互作用关系。田间试验设置无覆盖(CK)、25%砾石
覆盖(GM1)、50%砾石覆盖(GM2)、75%砾石覆盖(GM3)和100%砾石覆盖(GM4)5 个处理。结果表明:砾石覆盖
度与土壤水分呈显著正相关,100%砾石覆盖处理土壤贮水量最高;干旱胁迫条件下砾石覆盖度越高土壤的保水性越好,
降雨条件下砾石覆盖度越高土壤截留雨水的能力越大。砾石覆盖具有明显的增温效应,4 个砾石覆盖处理的土壤平均温
度大于CK 处理,GM4 处理土壤平均温度最大;砾石覆盖处理可以认为是一种有效的温度调节方式,具体表现在低温(−5~ 0 ℃)条件下GM4 处理较CK 处理土壤温度增加5 ℃,高温(40~45 ℃)条件下GM4 处理较CK 处理土壤温度降低3.7℃;
在寒冷气候和水分亏缺的情况下4 个砾石覆盖处理增温能力均大于对照。此外,夏玉米叶面积指数随着砾石覆盖度增加
而增大。100%砾石覆盖处理的2 季冬小麦和夏玉米平均产量较对照处理分别增加了58.55%和22.50%。可见,砾石覆盖
技术可以有效保持土壤水分、增加土壤温度、促进作物生长和提高产量,是干旱半干旱地区应对水分胁迫和气候变化、
实现农业增产的有效途径。

Other Abstract

Rain-fed farming in semi-arid areas of the Loess Plateau in China is constrained by low temperatures and water
limitations at the early crop growth stage, and the gravel mulch technology as an effective strategy has been used for centuries
to conserve soil water and increase soil temperature. To reveal the effects of gravel mulch on soil moisture, soil temperature,
rain-fed crop growth as well as yield, a field study of consecutive wheat-maize rotation was conducted in Shannxi Province in
the year of 2013-2015. The field experiment was arranged under natural rain-fed conditions with 5 gravel mulching levels,
including control with no mulch (CK), surface gravel mulch of 25% (GM1), surface gravel mulch of 50% (GM2), surface
gravel mulch of 75% (GM3) and surface gravel mulch of 100% (GM4). The results showed that soil moisture was significantly
and positively correlated with gravel mulch degree (GMD), and soil moisture increased with the increase of GMD; compared
with the other 4 gravel mulch treatments, GM4 treatment obtained the maximum soil water storage. Gravel mulch acted as a
layer with water holding capacity, which not only reduced water loss in the drought period, but also intercepted rainfall in the
wet period. Along with the increase of GMD, the water maintaining capacity in the dry period and the ability of rainfall
interception in the rainy period were both enhanced. Gravel mulch had an effective effect on soil temperature conservation; the
daily average soil temperatures in the different depths of the 4 gravel mulch treatments were all higher than the control, and
100% gravel mulch was the maximum. In order to investigate how gravel mulch affected soil temperature in the hot and cold
period, we tested the soil temperature in the extreme coldest (from -5 to 0 ℃) and hottest (40-45 ℃) weather conditions during
the winter wheat and summer maize growing season. Gravel mulch acted as a regulator of soil temperature, and thus soil
temperature could actively respond to extremely cold or hot weather. In the extremely cold period, air temperature was around
from -5 to 0 ℃, soil temperature of GM4 was 5 ℃ higher than CK, and soil temperatures of the other 3 gravel mulch
treatments were all higher than CK; in the extremely hot period, air temperature was around 40-45 ℃, soil temperature of
GM4 was 3.7 ℃ less than CK, and soil temperature of the other 3 gravel mulch treatments was all less than CK. Soil warming
ability responding to air temperature and soil moisture was greatly different; the 4 gravel mulch treatments were all higher than
the control treatment, and 100% gravel mulch was the maximum. So gravel mulch could effectively stabilize soil temperature.
As for the effects of gravel mulch on crop growth and yield, plant height and leaf area index were not significantly different in
the winter wheat growing season, while in summer maize growing season, plant height and leaf area index of the 4 gravel
mulch treatments were all significantly higher than the control, and the 100% gravel mulch was the maximum. Study also
showed that wheat and maize yields increased with the increase of GMD, and the average yield of 2 growing seasons for
winter wheat and summer maize under 100% gravel mulch treatment was 58.55% and 22.50% higher than the control,
respectively. These results demonstrated that the gravel mulch technology could effectively increase soil moisture and
maintain soil temperature and was beneficial to promote crop growth and ultimately affect the crop production. Overall, we
conclude that gravel mulch technology provides a new idea to positively cope with water limitation and climate change and
promote agricultural production in arid and semi-arid area of Northwest China.

Keyword砾石 土壤水分 温度 产量 响应机制 冬小麦 玉米
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8447
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院
2.西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院
3.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王冬林,冯 浩,李 毅. 砾石覆盖对土壤水热过程及旱作小麦玉米产量的影响[J]. 农业工程学报,2017,33(7):132-139.
APA 王冬林,冯 浩,&李 毅.(2017).砾石覆盖对土壤水热过程及旱作小麦玉米产量的影响.农业工程学报,33(7),132-139.
MLA 王冬林,et al."砾石覆盖对土壤水热过程及旱作小麦玉米产量的影响".农业工程学报 33.7(2017):132-139.
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