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利用土壤颗粒的沉降粒级研究泥沙的迁移与分布规律*
胡亚鲜1,2; Nikolaus J. Kuhn33
2017
Source Publication土壤学报
Volume54Issue:5Pages:1115-1124
Abstract

了解不同粒径泥沙迁移运动规律,有助于深入理解侵蚀条件下碳、氮、磷等元素的生
物地球化学过程。土壤营养元素的迁移转化与泥沙颗粒的运动规律密切相关,而泥沙的运动规律由颗
粒大小、性状、孔隙度和密度等因素共同决定。依据泥沙颗粒沉降速度分选的原理,针对中国两种典
型侵蚀土壤(红壤和黄绵土),分别进行了土壤机械组成(矿质土粒分选)和沉降速度分选测定。结
果表明,土壤颗粒的沉降粒级可有效区分红壤和黄绵土中不同粒径团聚体的沉降速度,能够更加准确
地反映出同一粒径颗粒因性状、密度和孔隙度的差异而形成的不同沉降速度。相对于质地疏松的黄绵
土,红壤的机械组成显示,有86.9%的有机碳与≤32 μm的矿物颗粒相结合,很有可能随悬移过程汇入
下游水体。但土壤颗粒沉降速度分布表明,约有90.5%的红壤有机碳与等效石英粒径≥63 μm的团聚体
相结合,易在经历较短的迁移过程后,快速沉积于下坡面。这表明,现有的土壤侵蚀模型大多利用土
壤机械组成(即矿质粒径大小)在反映泥沙运动或元素迁移规律方面存在片面性。土壤的团聚过程可
有效缩减有机碳和无机碳的迁移距离,从而使其更易沉积于陆生环境。土壤颗粒的沉降速度分级对认
识泥沙颗粒和养分元素在侵蚀—迁移—沉积过程中的生物地球化学过程提供了新的途径和视角。

Other Abstract

【Objective】Knowledge about thet ransport patterns of sediment helps to understand
the erosion-induced biogeochemical processes of C,N and P. The sediment transport distance is closely
associated with its settling velocity distribution,which is dependent on the size,shape,density and porosity
of sediment particles. In fact,aggregation processes turn fine particles into large aggregates,speeding up
the settling velocity of individual particles and shortening their transport distances. However,most of the soil
erosion models currently available are using soil texture or mineral particle distribution,therefore cannot
fully reflect the transport behavior of sediment particles.【Method】Two typical types of soils in China,
red soil(Hapli-Udic Ferrosols)and loess soil(Loessi-OrthicPrimosols),were investigated in this study.
The two soils had similar texture,but were distinctive in aggregate stability and soil organic carbon content.
They were,therefore,considered as suitable objects in this study to explore the potential differences
between settling velocity distribution and mineral size distribution. The two soils were fractionated by two
methods:conventional wet-sieving into mineral size distribution;and settling tube fractionation into settling
velocity distribution. The weight distribution,total organic carbon concentration and total inorganic carbon
concentration of individual classes were measured and compared. 【Result】Results show that,compared
with the conventional soil mineral size distribution,fractionation using settling tube is more effective in
distinguishing the settling velocity distributions of red soiland loess soil. This is because clay-sized particles
are more likely to be cooperated into aggregates,which facilitate the settling velocity of individual mineral
particles,and thus largely shorten their potential transport distance. In particular in the better aggregated red
soil,about 86.9% of the soil organic carbon was associated with fine particles ≤32 μm,which is very likely
to stay as suspension and thus transported downstream once erosion occurs. However,as a matter of fact,
about 90.5% of the soil organic carbon was combined with coarse aggregates of equivalent quartz size ≥63
μm,which would probably be deposited at the footslope immediately after short transport distance. Similar
patterns of soil inorganic carbon distributions were observed in the loess soil. All the findings demonstrate
that aggregation effects can effectively shorten the transport distance of soil organic and inorganic carbon and
skew their distributions towards the terrestrial system than if otherwise predicted by mineral size distributions.
【Conclusion】Settling velocity specific redistribution of sediment particles casts new light on our current
understanding of C,N and P biogeochemical processes during soil erosion and sediment transport and
deposition. Therefore,settling velocity specific distribution of sediment particle should be considered as a
soil erodibility parameter to be applied to soil erosion models .

Keyword沉降管法 沉降速度 团聚体 迁移距离 有机碳 无机碳
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8446
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
3.瑞士巴塞尔大学环境科学系
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
胡亚鲜,Nikolaus J. Kuhn3. 利用土壤颗粒的沉降粒级研究泥沙的迁移与分布规律*[J]. 土壤学报,2017,54(5):1115-1124.
APA 胡亚鲜,&Nikolaus J. Kuhn3.(2017).利用土壤颗粒的沉降粒级研究泥沙的迁移与分布规律*.土壤学报,54(5),1115-1124.
MLA 胡亚鲜,et al."利用土壤颗粒的沉降粒级研究泥沙的迁移与分布规律*".土壤学报 54.5(2017):1115-1124.
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