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降雨和汇流对黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀的影响试验研究
姜义亮1; 郑粉莉1,2; 温磊磊3; 沈海鸥3; 易祎3
2017
Source Publication生态学报
Volume37Issue:24Pages:8207-8215
Abstract

东北黑土区上坡汇流对坡面土壤侵蚀有重要影响,因此辨析降雨和汇流对黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀的影响对农田土壤侵蚀防
治有重要意义。通过设计不同降雨强度和汇流速率以及二者组合的模拟降雨及上方汇流试验,分析了降雨和汇流对黑土坡面
侵蚀的影响及其贡献。试验处理包括两个降雨强度( 50 mm/h 和100 mm/h) 、两个汇流速率( 50 mm/h 和100 mm/h,即: 10 L/
min 和20 L/min) 、以及4 种不同降雨强度和汇流速率的组合( ( 50+50) mm/h、( 50+100) mm/h、( 100+50) mm/h 和( 100+100)
mm/h) 。结果表明,在50 mm/h 和100 mm/h 上方汇流引起的坡面侵蚀量仅分别是50 mm/h 和100 mm/h 降雨引起坡面侵蚀量
的1.9%和0.6%; 当降雨强度和坡上方汇流速率分别由50 mm/h 增加至100 mm/h 时,降雨试验处理下的坡面侵蚀量增加6.1
倍,汇流试验处理下的坡面侵蚀量增加3.2 倍,说明降雨对坡面土壤侵蚀的影响显著大于汇流的作用。在降雨和汇流组合试验
中,总供水强度( 降雨强度+汇流速率) 为150 mm/h 时,降雨强度为100 mm/h 和汇流速率为50 mm/h 组合试验的坡面侵蚀量
是降雨强度为50 mm/h 和汇流速率为100 mm/h 组合试验坡面侵蚀量的7.9 倍。在相同汇流条件下,降雨强度由50 mm/h 增加
到100 mm/h 时,降雨强度的增加对坡面侵蚀量的贡献率为89.6%—99.5%; 而在相同降雨条件下,坡面汇流速率由50 mm/h 增
加100 mm/h 时,汇流速率的增加对坡面侵蚀量的贡献率为17.2%—78.7%,说明在东北黑土区防治坡面汇流对坡面土壤侵蚀
影响也尤为重要。

Other Abstract

Upslope runoff has a great influence on hillslope soil erosion in typical black soil regions. However,few attempts
have been made to clearly distinguish the effects of rainfall and upslope runoff on the hillslope soil erosion. Therefore,
quantifying the contributions of rainfall and upslope runoff to the hillslope soil erosion is important,which will provide a
scientific basis to prevent and control the hillslope erosion in the black soil regions. This study used simulated rainfall and
inflow experiments to investigate how rainfall and inflow affect hillslope soil erosion and estimated their contributions to soil
loss in typical black soil regions. The black soil used in this experiment was collected from the Yushu city in the JilinProvince and the experiment was conducted in the simulation rainfall hall of the Institute of Soil and Water Conservation.
The set of rainfall simulator with lateral spraying nozzles,16 m above the ground,were used to simulate the rainfall. An
overflow tank,attached to the upper end of the soil pan,was used for supplying the inflow. The soil pan ( 8 m long,3 m
wide,and 0.5 m deep) was divided into two sub-soil pans by separation of PVC sheets. The experimental design included
two rainfall intensities ( 50mm/h and 100 mm/h) ,two inflow rates ( 50 mm/h and 100 mm/h,equal to 10 L /min and 20
L /min,respectively) ,and combinations of two rainfall intensities and two inflow rates ( 50 mm/h rainfall + 50 mm/h
inflow,50 mm/h rainfall + 100 mm/h inflow,100 mm/h rainfall + 50 mm/h inflow,100 mm/h rainfall + 100 mm/h
inflow) . All experiments were run at a 10° slope gradient and the duration was 100 min. Each treatment had two
replications. During the experiment,runoff samples were collected every 2 min with a 15 L bucket and the weight of the
dried sediment was used to calculate the erosion rate. Results showed that soil loss caused by 50 mm/h and 100 mm/h
inflow rates only occupied 1.9% and 0.6% of soil loss induced by 50 mm/h and 100 mm/h rainfall intensities,respectively.
With increasing rainfall intensity from 50 mm/h to 100 mm/h,the soil loss increased 6.1 times,and with increasing inflow
rate from 50 mm/h to 100 mm/h,the soil loss increased 3. 2 times. The results indicated that the influence of rainfall
intensity on soil loss is greater than that of inflow rate. Regarding the combination treatments of rainfall and inflow,when the
total water supply was 150 mm/h,the soil loss under 100 mm/h rainfall intensity + 50 mm/h inflow rate was 11.52 kg,
which was 7.9 times higher than that under 50 mm/h rainfall intensity + 100 mm/h inflow rate. Under remaining 50 mm/h
inflow rate or under 100 mm/h inflow rate,when the rainfall intensity changed from 50 mm/h to 100 mm/h,the increased
rainfall intensity contributed to 89.6%—99.5% of the soil loss. At keeping 50 mm/h rainfall intensity or under 100 mm/h
rainfall intensity,when the inflow rate varied from 50 mm/h to 100 mm/h,the increased inflow rate contributed to
17.2%—78. 7% of the soil loss. These results indicate that controlling the upslope runoff is also an important way for
reducing the hillslope soil erosion in typical black soil regions.

Keyword降雨 汇流 贡献率 黑土坡面 土壤侵蚀
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8438
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所,黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
3.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
姜义亮,郑粉莉,温磊磊,等. 降雨和汇流对黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀的影响试验研究[J]. 生态学报,2017,37(24):8207-8215.
APA 姜义亮,郑粉莉,温磊磊,沈海鸥,&易祎.(2017).降雨和汇流对黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀的影响试验研究.生态学报,37(24),8207-8215.
MLA 姜义亮,et al."降雨和汇流对黑土区坡面土壤侵蚀的影响试验研究".生态学报 37.24(2017):8207-8215.
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