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黄土塬区降水变化对冬小麦土壤耗水特性及 水分利用效率的影响
倪盼盼,1,3; 朱元骏1,2; 巩铁雄1,3
2017
Source Publication干旱地区农业研究
Volume35Issue:4Pages:80-87
Abstract

采用人工遮雨棚和自流滴灌系统来实时人工干预降水,研究了黄土塬区不同降水条件即正常降水
( CK) 、降水减少1 /3( R - 1 /3
) 和降水增加1 /3( R + 1 /3
) 条件下,麦田0 ~ 4 m 土壤水分变化、冬小麦耗水特性及WUE。
结果表明: ( 1) 降水变化改变了冬小麦对土壤水的利用和补给; 降水减少,冬小麦对土壤水的利用增强,导致生育
期和休闲期深层土壤含水量降低,且很难补充恢复; 降水增加,冬小麦也会部分利用深层土壤水,土壤含水量在生
育期呈降低趋势,在冬小麦收获后,土壤水得到补给,土壤含水量会逐渐恢复并高于前期土壤含水量。( 2) 冬小麦
优先利用降水转化而来的土壤水,然后利用土壤前期储水; 对于越冬~ 成熟期的总耗水量( ET) 组成,R - 1 /3
处理的
冬小麦对降水和0 ~ 2 m 土壤水分的利用增强,降水量( P) 和0 ~ 20 m 土壤贮水变化量( ΔW0 - 2 m
) 各自约占ET 的
40%; R + 1 /3
处理P 占ET 的比例约是ΔW0 ~ 2 m
的1 倍多; CK 处理P 占ET 的比例比ΔW0 ~ 2 m
高15% 左右; 降水减少,
降水占耗水量的比例降低,0 ~ 2 m 土壤水占耗水量比例增加; 降水增加,则有相反的结果。( 3) 降水减少,WUEbio
( 基于生物量的WUE) 相对于CK 处理降低了1. 3%,但产量下降程度( 7. 1%) 小于耗水下降程度( 14. 2%) ,
WUEgrain
( 基于籽粒产量的WUE) 反而增加; 降水增加,相对于CK 处理生物量减少5. 3% 而籽粒产量增加4. 5%,但
水分的消耗增加了11. 4%,WUEbio
和WUEgrain
均降低。总之,降水变化改变了冬小麦对土壤水的利用、土壤水的补
给、冬小麦的耗水组成以及生物量和产量的平衡,最终影响冬小麦WUE。

Other Abstract

A real-time rainfall control technique consisting of artificial rainfall-shields and gravitational trickle
irrigation system was used to investigate the effects of normal rainfall ( CK) ,rainfall reduction 1 /3 ( R - 1 /3
) ,and
rainfall increase1 /3 ( R + 1 /3
) ) on 0 ~ 4 m soil water storage,winter wheat water consumption and WUE in the loess
tableland. The results indicated that: ( 1) Rainfall fluctuation modified water utilization of winter wheat and soil water
supply. With the reducing of rainfall,winter wheat used more soil water,resulting in the decrease of deep soil
water content during growth and fallow periods,which was hardly restored by rainfall during fallow period. With the
increase of rainfall,deep soil water content decreased during growth period but could be restored even higher than
initial soil water content after harvest due to the supply of rainfall in fallow period. ( 2) Winter wheat used soil water that transformed from current rainfall event firstly and then used early soil water. For evapotranspiration( ET) of
the period from overwintering to mature period,winter wheat of R - 1 /3 used more soil water from 0 to 2 m. Precipitation(
P) and ΔW0 ~ 2 m each accounted for about 40% of the ET. The ratio which P accounted for in ET of R + 1 /3 was
about 1 times more than ΔW0 ~ 2 m. However,in the treatment of CK,The proportion which P accounted for in ET
was about 15% more than ΔW0 ~ 2 m. Under the condition of rainfall decrease,the proportion of soil water transformed
from current rainfall event to winter wheat water consumption decreased and the proportion of 0 ~ 2 m early
soil water increased. Opposite result was obtained with rainfall decreasing. ( 3) Campared with CK,the winter
wheat WUEbio
( on biomass level) decreased by 1. 3% in the treatment of R - 1 /3
,and its WUEgrain
( on grain level)
increased,because the decline on grain level( 7. 1%) was less than the degree of water drops( 14. 2%) . The winter
wheat biomass decreased by 5. 3% and grain yield increased by 4. 5% in the treatment of R + 1 /3 when it was harvested,
but its WUEbio and WUEgrain decreased because of 11. 4% increase in soil water consumption. Generally,
rainfall fluctuation had effects on soil water use,soil water supply,winter wheat water consumption composition and
the balance between biomass and grain of winter wheat,which affected the winter wheat WUE finally.

Keyword土壤水 降水变化 水分利用效率 冬小麦 耗水特征
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8430
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
2.西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
3.中国科学院大学
First Author Affilication中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
倪盼盼,,朱元骏,巩铁雄. 黄土塬区降水变化对冬小麦土壤耗水特性及 水分利用效率的影响[J]. 干旱地区农业研究,2017,35(4):80-87.
APA 倪盼盼,,朱元骏,&巩铁雄.(2017).黄土塬区降水变化对冬小麦土壤耗水特性及 水分利用效率的影响.干旱地区农业研究,35(4),80-87.
MLA 倪盼盼,,et al."黄土塬区降水变化对冬小麦土壤耗水特性及 水分利用效率的影响".干旱地区农业研究 35.4(2017):80-87.
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