ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所知识产出(1956---)
不同栽培模式旱作春玉米农田土壤水分 时空动态和产量效应
白翔斌1,2; 陈迎迎2; 李世清1
2015
Source Publication干 旱 地 区 农 业 研 究
Volume33Issue:3Pages:164-170
Abstract

于 2012 年和 2013 年连续两年进行田间定位试验,研究在全膜双垄沟覆盖条件下不同施肥和开花期
揭膜处理对春玉米农田土壤水分时空变化特征、土壤含水量和水分利用效率的影响。试验设农户模式(施 N 200
kg·hm
-2 ,半膜,CK)、高产栽培(施 N 380 kg·hm -2 ,T1)、高产高效栽培(施 N 225 kg·hm -2
+ 有机肥,T2)、再高
产高效栽培(施 N 225 kg·hm
-2
+ 有机肥 + 开花期揭膜,T3)等 4 个处理,以先玉 335 为供试玉米品种,分别在玉米
各个关键生育期测定土壤含水量,收获测定实际产量。结果表明,T2、T3 处理在生育前期、中期不仅能够高效利用
浅层(0 ~100 cm)土壤水分,而且有利于促使深层(100 ~200 cm)土壤水分向上迁移,为玉米生育后期雨季充分蓄
纳降雨腾出库容;从播前到收获 0 ~200 cm 土壤贮水量均降低,收获时各处理贮水量依次为 CK > T1 > T2 > T3,差
值均小于 5 cm,没有显著差异。土壤含水量在 0 ~60 cm 土层变化幅度大,而深层(160 ~200 cm)比较稳定。四种
处理间耗水量、产量和水分利用效率存在不同差异,表现为 T3 > T2 > T1 > CK。尤其 2013 年四个处理产量和水分
利用效率均达到显著水平,T1、T2、T3 产量分别比 CK 高 27. 4%、34. 8%、42. 4%,CK 处理水分利用效率比 T1、T2、
T3 分别低 21. 7%、29.9%、23.7%。高产高效栽培,特别是开花期揭膜的再高产高效栽培模式,在玉米整个生育期不
仅没有导致土壤剖面土壤水分显著降低,而且可显著提高籽粒产量和水分利用效率,是该地区值得推广的旱作春玉
米栽培模式。

Other Abstract

 To assess the impacts of different cultivation systems on the characteristics of space-time dynamics
on soil moisture and water use efficiency (WUE),which could be helpful for increasing grain yield and WUE in
dryland maize production in semi-arid regions,a field trial was conducted at the Changwu experimental station in
2012 and 2013. Four treatments were carried out including farmers’practice(N 200 kg·hm
-2 ,ridges covered
with plastic film,CK),T1 treatment (N 380 kg·hm
-2 ,ridges and furrows both covered with plastic film),T2
treatment (N 225 kg·hm
-2
+ Organic fertilizer,ridges and furrows both covered with plastic film),T3 treatment
(N 225 kg·hm
-2
+ Organic fertilizer,ridges and furrows both covered with plastic film and removing plastic film
at silking stage). Compared to farmers’practice,T1,T2 and T3 treatments could not only efficiently use water in
the 0 ~100 cm soil layers,but also use water in the 100 ~200 cm soil layers. At harvest,no significant differences
in soil water content were observed between treatments. Water consumption levels during the whole growing stage of
the four treatments were in the order of T3 > T2 > T1 > CK,and the grain yields followed the same. Because the
rate of yield increase was higher than that of water consumption,the water use efficiencies of the four treatments
were also found to be in the same order as T3 > T2 > T1 > CK. In conclusion,the cultivation systems that ridges  and furrows both were covered with plastic film improved not only grain yield but also water use efficiency,espe-
cially in the plots where plastic film was removed at the silking stage. This cultivation system could be helpful for
increasing grain yield and WUE of dryland maize in semi-arid regions.

Keyword春玉米 土壤含水量 栽培模式 水分利用效率 产量
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8380
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Corresponding Author李世清
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.西北农林科技大学资源与环境学院,陕西 杨凌 712100
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
白翔斌,陈迎迎,李世清. 不同栽培模式旱作春玉米农田土壤水分 时空动态和产量效应[J]. 干 旱 地 区 农 业 研 究,2015,33(3):164-170.
APA 白翔斌,陈迎迎,&李世清.(2015).不同栽培模式旱作春玉米农田土壤水分 时空动态和产量效应.干 旱 地 区 农 业 研 究,33(3),164-170.
MLA 白翔斌,et al."不同栽培模式旱作春玉米农田土壤水分 时空动态和产量效应".干 旱 地 区 农 业 研 究 33.3(2015):164-170.
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