ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018届毕业生论文
不同葡萄品种果实品质对外源硒肥的响应
朱帅蒙
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor梁银丽
2018-05-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword鲜食葡萄 硒肥 栽培环境 果实品质 糖代谢
Abstract鲜食葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.)是一种适合消费的新鲜水果。硒是人体必需的微量元素,硒的缺乏是一个世界性营养问题。在果树栽培上,喷施硒肥是优质富硒葡萄生产的一种有效方法和新的尝试。随着富硒水果越来越受到消费者的欢迎,研究如何提高葡萄果实硒含量及果实品质,不仅对人类健康尤其重要,也可为葡萄的优质高效生产提供重要的理论和现实依据。
本研究以大田试验为基础,在陕西关中地区采用温室、露地相结合的方法,选取欧美杂交种和欧亚种多个鲜食葡萄品种为试材,叶面喷施氨基酸螯合态富硒叶面肥进行处理,系统研究了硒肥处理下不同葡萄品种果实品质的差异性、果实内硒与重金属的拮抗作用、不同微环境下果实品质对外源硒肥的响应及硒肥作用下果实内的糖积累代谢机制,为发展优质鲜食富硒葡萄提供科学依据。
主要结果如下:
(1)对比研究表明,采用有机Se浓度为120 mg·L-1喷施3次的氨基酸螯合态富硒叶面肥是生产优质富硒葡萄的较适宜选择。施用有机硒肥可以提升葡萄果实内的硒含量。综合评价分析得出,不管是户太八号还是克瑞森,喷施有机Se浓度为200 mg·L-1和150 mg·L-1的有机硒肥均不利于果实综合品质的改善,而有机Se浓度为120 mg·L-1喷施3次的果实综合品质优于同等浓度下喷施2次和1次。
(2)喷施硒肥可增加不同葡萄品种果实硒含量,显著改善果实的营养品质,降低重金属的累积,尤其是欧美杂交种更适合用于优质富硒葡萄的生产。叶面硒肥的应用增加了不同葡萄品种果实内的硒含量,欧美杂交种相比欧亚种葡萄果实内的硒含量更高。对欧美杂交种和欧亚种葡萄来说,叶面硒肥的应用均可提高果实内可溶性糖、维生素C、可溶性蛋白质、可溶性固形物等营养品质,同时,减少了果实内有机酸的累积。然而,硒肥对欧亚种葡萄果实内的酚类化合物白藜芦醇和原花青素含量没有显著的作用。喷施硒肥显著增加果实内的营养元素K和Ca含量,同时减少了重金属Pb、Cr、Cd、As、Ni的累积。
(3)温室栽培条件下喷施硒肥是优质富硒葡萄生产的较佳栽培管理模式。温室栽培条件下,喷施硒肥有助于改善果实的外观特性。喷施硒肥可显著增加户太八号和夏黑葡萄果实内的硒含量,且是改善其果实品质的一种有效方法。户太八号葡萄果实的保健价值优于夏黑,且温室栽培的户太八号葡萄果实的保健价值高于露地栽培。果实品质综合分析结果表明:户太八号和夏黑葡萄均表现为在温室栽培条件下喷施硒肥的果实品质最优,其次是露地栽培喷硒,且温室栽培对照的果实品质优于露地栽培的对照。
(4)喷施硒肥作用下葡萄果实内高的糖分积累主要源于硒肥下果实中高的酸性转化酶(AI)活性、叶片高的光合速率及植株抗逆性的增强,且葡萄糖和果糖是果实中的主要糖组分。叶面喷施硒肥不仅能增加果实硒含量,还能促进果实的生长和可溶性糖的积累,改善果实的内在营养品质。在成熟期,2016和2017年硒肥处理下葡萄果实的可溶性总糖均显著高于对照,葡萄糖和果糖是葡萄果实中的主要糖组分,还含有少量蔗糖。在果实糖分积累代谢过程中,果皮内的AI酶活性要高于果肉,且果肉和果皮内AI酶活性均在糖积累过程中发挥了重要作用;硒肥喷施在一定程度上促进了叶片过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性提高,减少了叶片丙二醛(MDA)的含量,增强了葡萄植株的抗逆性。
综上所述,合理有效的外源硒肥喷施可以增加葡萄果实内的硒含量,改善果实的外观品质及营养保健品质,增加果实内K和Ca营养元素含量,有效减少果实内重金属的累积,增强植株的抗逆性。另外,温室栽培条件下喷硒的果实综合品质效果较优。硒肥喷施后,果实内高的酸性转化酶活性、叶片内高的光合速率和植株抗逆性的增强均解释了果实内糖含量的增加,为优质富硒鲜食葡萄的生产栽培提供科学的理论和实践指导。
Other AbstractTable grape is a fruit well suited for consumption as fresh-cut product. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace elements in human nutrition, but Se deficiency is still a serious nutritional and health problem worldwide. Spraying Se fertilizer is a new practice for high-quality production in tree fruit cultivation, and an effective method of developing Se-enriched fruit. With Se-enriched fruit is becoming more and more popular among consumers, study how to improve Se content and fruit quality of grape berries, is not only especially important for human health, but also can provide important theoretical and practical basis for the high quality and efficient cultivation and production of table grape.
This study was based on field experiment, conducted in Guanzhong region of Shaanxi province, cultivated in greenhouse and open field, selected European and American hybrid species and Eurasian species multiple table grape varieties as the experimental materials, accompanied by spraying Se fertilizer on the leaves during the growth and development of grapes. It had been further and systematical researched on following contents, including the variation of fruit quality on different varieties table grape under Se fertilizer treatments, the antagonism of Se and heavy metals in grape berries, response of fruit quality to exogenous Se fertilizer under different cultivation microclimates, the metabolism mechanism of sugar accumulation in grape berries under Se fertilizer treatment. Accordingly, providing scientific guidance for high-quality Se-enriched table grape future extensive cultivation.
The main results were as follows:
(1) Comparative research indicated that spraying 3 times with organic Se concentration of 120 mg·L-1 of amino acid-chelated Se-enriched foliar fertilizer treatment was a suitable choice for the production of high-quality Se-enriched grapes. Organic Se fertilizer application enhanced the Se content in grape. Comprehensive evaluation analysis showed: whether Hutai No.8 or Crimson seedless, spraying Se fertilizer that organic Se concentration of 200 mg·L-1 and 150 mg·L-1 was not conducive to the improvement of comprehensive fruit quality, however, spraying 3 times with organic Se concentration of 120 mg·L-1 had the better comprehensive fruit quality than that of 1 or 2 times.
(2) Se fertilizer could increase Se content of grape from different varieties, significantly improved the nutrition quality, reduce the accumulation of heavy metals, especially for European and American hybrid species, which is more suitable for producing high-quality Se-enriched grapes. Se content of grape was increased by foliar Se fertilizer, as well as Se content in grape of European and American hybrid species was higher than that of Eurasian species. Se fertilizer application increased the Vc, soluble protein, soluble solid nutrition quality, and reduced the organic acid for both Eurasian species and European and American hybrid species, while it had less effect on resveratrol and proanthocyanidin content of Eurasian species. Spraying Se fertilizer significantly increased K and Ca nutrients content in grape, at the same time reduced accumulation of heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Ni.
(3) Spraying Se fertilizer in greenhouse is an appropriate cultivation and management method to produce the high-quality Se-enriched grape. In greenhouse, spraying Se fertilizer was conducive to improving fruit appearance traits. Se content of grape berries was increased by Se fertilizer application, and spraying Se fertilizer was an effective measure to improve fruit quality for both Hutai No.8 and Summer Black. The fruit health care values of Hutai No.8 were superior to that of Summer Black, and the fruit health care values of Hutai No.8 in greenhouse were better than that in open field. Comprehensive analysis of fruit quality showed that, the fruit quality of Hutai No.8 and Summer Black grape under the condition of greenhouse cultivation of spraying Se fertilizer were optimal, followed by spraying Se fertilizer in open field, and the fruit quality of control in greenhouse was better than that of control in open field.
 (4) The high sugars accumulation of grape under Se fertilizer treatments mainly comes from the higher AI enzyme activity of berries, higher photosynthetic rate in leaves and enhanced plant resistance of Se fertilizer treatments, glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries. Foliar Se fertilizer not only could increase Se content in fruit, but also could promote grape growth and sugar accumulation, improving internal quality. At maturity in 2016 and 2017, the total soluble sugar content of berries in the Se fertilizer-treated group was significantly higher than that of control; glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in grape, with a trace amount of sucrose. During the accumulation of sugar in grape berries, AI activity in the peel was higher than that of pulp, and AI played an important role in the process of sugar accumulation in berries. To a certain extent, Se fertilizer application promoted the increasing of CAT, SOD and POD activity in leaves, and decreased the content of MDA, further enhanced the resistance of grape plants. Therefore, high AI activity in berries and high photosynthetic rate could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in grape.
In conclusion, the effective and reasonable exogenous Se fertilizer application could increase Se content in grape, improve the appearance traits and nutritional health care values of the fruit, increase nutrient elements K and Ca content in grape, effectively reduce the accumulation of heavy metals in grape, enhance the plant resistance. In addition, the comprehensive fruit quality under Se fertilizer treated in greenhouse was optimum. High AI activity in berries and high photosynthetic rate could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in grape. Accordingly providing scientific guidance for foliar Se fertilizer application in high-quality Se-enriched grapes production and cultivation.
Subject Area农林科学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8152
Collection水保所2018届毕业生论文
Affiliation中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱帅蒙. 不同葡萄品种果实品质对外源硒肥的响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
20180604-毕业论文-打印版上传.(5331KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[朱帅蒙]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[朱帅蒙]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[朱帅蒙]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.