KMS Institute of soil and water conservation Chinese Academy of Sciences
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||肥料 泥沙 浑水 水肥一体化 滴头 输沙能力|
（1）浑水中施肥后，施加尿素的滴头输沙能力最大，其次为复合肥，最小的为硫酸钾。施加尿素后，滴头的次平均输出泥沙量较未施肥大，且随肥料浓度的增加而增大；施加尿素后滴头泥沙输出量的分布范围增大。浑水中施加硫酸钾后，含沙量为1.0和1.5 g/L时，滴头次平均输出泥沙量较未施肥大；而含沙量为2.0 g/L时，则较未施肥小。
（2）累积泥沙输出量与累积灌水量之间存在显著的正线性相关关系。施尿素处理的累积泥沙输出量与累积灌水量拟合直线斜率值较未施肥处理大。含沙量为1.0和1.5 g/L时，硫酸钾处理的拟合直线斜率值较未施肥大；含沙量为2.0 g/L时，施加硫酸钾处理的拟合直线斜率值较未施肥小。累积泥沙输出量与平均相对流量之间存在显著的负线性相关性，平均相对流量随着累积泥沙输出量的增加而减小。施加尿素处理的减小速度较未施肥慢，施加硫酸钾和复合肥处理的减小速度较未施肥处理快。
（5）施加尿素后，滴头的单次输出泥沙能力和综合输沙能力增大。浑水中施加硫酸钾后，浑水含沙量为1.0 g/L时，施肥后滴头综合输出泥沙能力较未施肥大；含沙量为1.5和2.0 g/L时，施肥后滴头综合输出泥沙能力较未施肥小。在3种肥料对比研究中，施加硫酸钾和复合肥后，不同灌水次数结束后滴头单次输送泥沙能力和综合输沙能力较未施肥小。
|Other Abstract||Drip irrigation technology is an efficient water-saving irrigation method, with the characteristics of water-saving and fertilizer-saving, etc. Drip irrigation technology has been widely used in order to alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of agricultural water and to improve the efficiency of water and fertilizer utilization. In recent years, the application of drip irrigation in Yellow River irrigation areas has also become more popular, while the high turbidity of the Yellow River water can easily lead to clogging of drip irrigation drippers. In this study, three kinds of fertilizers were experimented through an indoor short-period intermittent irrigation test method. Three kinds of sediment concentration (1.0, 1.5and 2.0 g/L) and three fertilizer concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) were set to study the effects of different fertilizer types and concentrations on sediment output amount, sediment particle size and sediment transport capacity, which provides guidance for drip irrigation of high-concentration source water and fertilizer in the Yellow River irrigation area and for the study on effects of drip irrigation and fertilization in muddy water on clogging law and mechanism of dripper. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows: |
（1）After applying fertilizer in muddy water, the sediment transport capacity of dripper applying urea reached the largest, followed respectively by compound fertilizer and potassium sulfate. After urea was applied, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was not larger than that with no fertilizer and increased with the rising fertilizer concentration; the distribution range of sediment output increased after application of urea. When potassium sulfate was applied in muddy water, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was larger than that of unfertilized as the sediment content was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L. However, when the sediment concentration was 2.0 g/L, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was comparatively smaller than that of non-fertilizer.
（2）There was a significant positive linear correlation between cumulative sediment output and accumulated irrigation volume. The fitted linear slope of the accumulated sediment output and accumulated irrigation volume of the urea treatment was greater than that of the unfertilized treatment. When the sediment concentration was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L, the fitting slope of the potassium sulfate treatment was larger than that of unfertilized application; when the sediment concentration was 2.0 g/L, the fitting linear slope of the potassium sulfate treatment was larger than that without fertilizer; when the sediment concentration was greater than 2.0 g/L, the slope was just in the opposite. There was a significant negative linear correlation between the accumulated sediment output and the average relative flow, and the average relative flow decreases with the rising accumulated sediment output. The reduction rate of the application of urea treatment was slower than that of the non-fertilizer treatment, and the reduction rate of the application of potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer treatment was faster than that of the non-fertilizer treatment.
（3）With the increase of irrigation times, the sediments output rate of dripper gradually decreased, and the sediment output rate of drippers was less than 100%. After using urea, the sediment output rate of drippers was larger than that of unfertilized treatments, and it increased with the rising fertilizer concentration. When the sediment concentration was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L, the sediment output rate of potassium sulfate treatment was greater than that of unfertilized treatment. After urea was applied, the degree of declining of sediment output rate was smaller than that of unfertilized treatment with irrigation times increased. The degree of declining of sediment output rate treated with potassium sulphate and compound fertilizers was larger than that from unfertilized treatments with increasing irrigation times.
（4）Compared with non-fertilizer, application of urea in muddy water mainly changed the ratio of silt and sand in the output sediment, thereby affecting the sediment transport capacity, increasing the proportion of silt, and decreasing the proportion of sand; applying urea had the greatest impact on the proportion of sand in the output sediment. Applying potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer had the greatest influence on the proportion of clay and sand in the output sediment of the dripper, and had the smallest impact on the ratio of silt and sand. The fractal dimension of the sediment output was positively correlated with the proportion of clay and silt, and was significantly negatively correlated with sand ratio. The fractal dimension of the output sediment was mainly determined by the proportion of clay, and fractal dimensions can be used to characterize the changes in the proportion of sediment particles.
（5）After the application of urea, the single output sedimentation capacity and integrated sediment transport capacity of the dripper increased. After potassium sulfate was applied in muddy water and sediment content in muddy water was 1.0 g/L, the integrated sedimentation ability of the drippers after fertilization was greater than that without fertilization. When the sediment concentration was 1.5 and 2.0 g/L, the integrated sediment output capacity with fertilizer was smaller than that without fertilizer. In the comparative study of three kinds of fertilizers, after applying potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer, single sand transport capacity and integrated sediment transport capacity were smaller than that without fertilizer when the irrigation ended.
|官雅辉. 肥料类型及浓度对水肥一体化浑水滴灌滴头输沙能力的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.|
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