ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--届毕业生论文
肥料类型及浓度对水肥一体化浑水滴灌滴头输沙能力的影响
官雅辉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor牛文全
2018-05-18
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline水土保持与荒漠化防治
Keyword肥料 泥沙 浑水 水肥一体化 滴头 输沙能力
Abstract滴灌技术作为一种具有较优效果的节水灌溉方式,具有节水节肥等特点。为缓解农业用水供需矛盾,提高水肥利用效率,滴灌技术得到广泛的应用。近年来,引黄灌区的滴灌实践也越来越普及,但黄河水高含沙高浊度的特点容易导致滴灌滴头堵塞。本研究通过室内短周期间歇灌水试验方法,选择了3种肥料类型,设置了3种浑水含沙量(1.0、1.5和2.0 g/L)、3种肥料浓度(1%、2%和3%),研究了浑水灌溉中不同肥料类型和浓度对水肥一体化滴灌滴头输出泥沙量、输出泥沙粒径和输沙能力的影响,为指导引黄灌区高含沙水源水肥一体化滴灌实践和研究浑水滴灌施肥对滴头堵塞规律和机理的影响提供参考。主要结论如下:
(1)浑水中施肥后,施加尿素的滴头输沙能力最大,其次为复合肥,最小的为硫酸钾。施加尿素后,滴头的次平均输出泥沙量较未施肥大,且随肥料浓度的增加而增大;施加尿素后滴头泥沙输出量的分布范围增大。浑水中施加硫酸钾后,含沙量为1.0和1.5 g/L时,滴头次平均输出泥沙量较未施肥大;而含沙量为2.0 g/L时,则较未施肥小。
(2)累积泥沙输出量与累积灌水量之间存在显著的正线性相关关系。施尿素处理的累积泥沙输出量与累积灌水量拟合直线斜率值较未施肥处理大。含沙量为1.0和1.5 g/L时,硫酸钾处理的拟合直线斜率值较未施肥大;含沙量为2.0 g/L时,施加硫酸钾处理的拟合直线斜率值较未施肥小。累积泥沙输出量与平均相对流量之间存在显著的负线性相关性,平均相对流量随着累积泥沙输出量的增加而减小。施加尿素处理的减小速度较未施肥慢,施加硫酸钾和复合肥处理的减小速度较未施肥处理快。
(3)随着灌水次数增加,滴头泥沙输出率逐渐减小,滴头泥沙输出率小于100%。施尿素后,滴头的泥沙输出率较未施肥处理大,且随着肥料浓度的增大呈增大趋势。含沙量为1.0和1.5 g/L时,硫酸钾处理的泥沙输出率较未施肥处理大。施加尿素后,滴头泥沙输出率随灌水次数增加下降幅度较未施肥处理小,施加硫酸钾和复合肥处理的滴头泥沙输出率随灌水次数增加下降幅度较未施肥处理大。
(4)与未施肥相比,浑水中施加尿素主要改变输出泥沙的粉砂和砂粒比例对输沙能力产生影响,增大了粉砂比例,降低了砂粒比例;施加尿素对滴头输出泥沙中砂粒比例影响最大。施加硫酸钾和复合肥对滴头输出泥沙中黏粒和砂粒比例影响最大,对粉砂比例影响最小。输出泥沙的分形维数与黏粒和粉砂比例呈显著正相关,与砂粒比例呈显著负相关,输出泥沙分形维数主要由黏粒比例决定,可以用分形维数来表征泥沙各粒径比例的变化情况。
(5)施加尿素后,滴头的单次输出泥沙能力和综合输沙能力增大。浑水中施加硫酸钾后,浑水含沙量为1.0 g/L时,施肥后滴头综合输出泥沙能力较未施肥大;含沙量为1.5和2.0 g/L时,施肥后滴头综合输出泥沙能力较未施肥小。在3种肥料对比研究中,施加硫酸钾和复合肥后,不同灌水次数结束后滴头单次输送泥沙能力和综合输沙能力较未施肥小。
Other AbstractDrip irrigation technology is an efficient water-saving irrigation method, with the characteristics of water-saving and fertilizer-saving, etc. Drip irrigation technology has been widely used in order to alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of agricultural water and to improve the efficiency of water and fertilizer utilization. In recent years, the application of drip irrigation in Yellow River irrigation areas has also become more popular, while the high turbidity of the Yellow River water can easily lead to clogging of drip irrigation drippers. In this study, three kinds of fertilizers were experimented through an indoor short-period intermittent irrigation test method. Three kinds of sediment concentration (1.0, 1.5and 2.0 g/L) and three fertilizer concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) were set to study the effects of different fertilizer types and concentrations on sediment output amount, sediment particle size and sediment transport capacity, which provides guidance for drip irrigation of high-concentration source water and fertilizer in the Yellow River irrigation area and for the study on effects of drip irrigation and fertilization in muddy water on clogging law and mechanism of dripper. The main conclusions of this paper are as follows: 
(1)After applying fertilizer in muddy water, the sediment transport capacity of dripper applying urea reached the largest, followed respectively by compound fertilizer and potassium sulfate. After urea was applied, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was not larger than that with no fertilizer and increased with the rising fertilizer concentration; the distribution range of sediment output increased after application of urea. When potassium sulfate was applied in muddy water, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was larger than that of unfertilized as the sediment content was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L. However, when the sediment concentration was 2.0 g/L, the average output sediment amount of the dripper was comparatively smaller than that of non-fertilizer.
(2)There was a significant positive linear correlation between cumulative sediment output and accumulated irrigation volume. The fitted linear slope of the accumulated sediment output and accumulated irrigation volume of the urea treatment was greater than that of the unfertilized treatment. When the sediment concentration was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L, the fitting slope of the potassium sulfate treatment was larger than that of unfertilized application; when the sediment concentration was 2.0 g/L, the fitting linear slope of the potassium sulfate treatment was larger than that without fertilizer; when the sediment concentration was greater than 2.0 g/L, the slope was just in the opposite. There was a significant negative linear correlation between the accumulated sediment output and the average relative flow, and the average relative flow decreases with the rising accumulated sediment output. The reduction rate of the application of urea treatment was slower than that of the non-fertilizer treatment, and the reduction rate of the application of potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer treatment was faster than that of the non-fertilizer treatment.
(3)With the increase of irrigation times, the sediments output rate of dripper gradually decreased, and the sediment output rate of drippers was less than 100%. After using urea, the sediment output rate of drippers was larger than that of unfertilized treatments, and it increased with the rising fertilizer concentration. When the sediment concentration was 1.0 and 1.5 g/L, the sediment output rate of potassium sulfate treatment was greater than that of unfertilized treatment. After urea was applied, the degree of declining of sediment output rate was smaller than that of unfertilized treatment with irrigation times increased. The degree of declining of sediment output rate treated with potassium sulphate and compound fertilizers was larger than that from unfertilized treatments with increasing irrigation times.
(4)Compared with non-fertilizer, application of urea in muddy water mainly changed the ratio of silt and sand in the output sediment, thereby affecting the sediment transport capacity, increasing the proportion of silt, and decreasing the proportion of sand; applying urea had the greatest impact on the proportion of sand in the output sediment. Applying potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer had the greatest influence on the proportion of clay and sand in the output sediment of the dripper, and had the smallest impact on the ratio of silt and sand. The fractal dimension of the sediment output was positively correlated with the proportion of clay and silt, and was significantly negatively correlated with sand ratio. The fractal dimension of the output sediment was mainly determined by the proportion of clay, and fractal dimensions can be used to characterize the changes in the proportion of sediment particles.
(5)After the application of urea, the single output sedimentation capacity and integrated sediment transport capacity of the dripper increased. After potassium sulfate was applied in muddy water and sediment content in muddy water was 1.0 g/L, the integrated sedimentation ability of the drippers after fertilization was greater than that without fertilization. When the sediment concentration was 1.5 and 2.0 g/L, the integrated sediment output capacity with fertilizer was smaller than that without fertilizer. In the comparative study of three kinds of fertilizers, after applying potassium sulfate and compound fertilizer, single sand transport capacity and integrated sediment transport capacity were smaller than that without fertilizer when the irrigation ended.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8143
Collection水保所2018--届毕业生论文
Affiliation中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
官雅辉. 肥料类型及浓度对水肥一体化浑水滴灌滴头输沙能力的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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