ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--届毕业生论文
黄土丘陵区撂荒演替典型草本植物-土壤反馈研究
艾泽民
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor刘国彬 ; 薛萐
2018-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword植物-土壤反馈 撂荒演替 影响因子 矿质养分 微生物群落
Abstract植物-土壤反馈被广泛运用于解释植物群落的演替机制,而黄土丘陵区撂荒演替植被恢复过程中的植物-土壤反馈研究仍少见报道。本文以黄土丘陵区撂荒演替植被恢复不同阶段的典型草本植物狗尾草(Setaria viridis,先锋物种)、铁杆蒿(Artemisia sacrorum,演替中期)和白羊草(Bothriochloa ischcemum,演替后期)为研究对象,采用野外与盆栽模拟试验相结合的方法,系统地分析演替不同阶段植物-土壤反馈对植物特性、土壤肥力、和土壤微生物特性的影响,探讨了土壤和微生物对植物特性变化的主要影响因子,以期为区域生态恢复与重建提供科学的理论依据。主要结果如下:
(1)土壤反馈作用显著影响狗尾草、铁杆蒿和白羊草的光合特性、非结构性碳含量、矿质养分含量、生物量及其分配特征。狗尾草、铁杆蒿和白羊草的反馈系数和竞争系数均受土壤反馈作用显著影响;反馈系数很好地反映了植物在不同土壤条件下的生长状态,被抑制或促进;竞争系数很好地解释了不同演替阶段物种间的相互作用关系:演替先锋物种与其演替中、后期的物种间以种间竞争为主,演替中、后期物种与先锋物种间以种内竞争为主,演替中期物种与其演替后期物种间为种内种间竞争达到平衡,演替后期与其演替中期物种间仍以种内竞争为主。
(2)土壤肥力、微生物量及酶活性受植物反馈作用显著影响,但变化特征因植物种类和土壤条件不同而具有明显差异。土壤肥力和酶活性与植物生物量和非结构性碳含量密切相关。土壤全氮、水溶性有机碳、木糖苷酶和丙氨酸酶是植物特性变化的主要影响因子,土壤全氮和木糖苷酶是物种演替的潜在影响因子。
(3)植物反馈作用显著影响土壤细菌和真菌群落多样性与结构,但影响效果依赖于植物种类和土壤条件。对各处理土壤细菌和真菌群落而言,在门分类水平上均以变形菌门和子囊菌门为主要优势类群;在纲分类水平上均以α-变形菌纲和粪壳菌纲为主要优势类群;在目分类水平上,细菌群落以根瘤菌目和芽单胞菌目为主要优势类群,真菌群落以伞菌目和粪壳菌目为主要优势类群。土壤细菌群落主要影响植物生物量和非结构性碳含量;土壤真菌群落主要影响植物的生物量,对植物非结构性碳和矿质养分含量有一定的影响。土壤细菌群落的Chao1指数、黄色单胞菌目和酸微菌目及土壤真菌群落粪壳菌目是植物特性变化的主要影响因子,土壤细菌群落的Chao1指数是物种演替的潜在影响因子。
(4)植物-土壤反馈作用对植物、微生物和土壤化学计量特征有显著影响,但变化特征因植物种类和土壤条件不同具有明显差异。植物地上部与土壤、微生物量和酶化学计量特征间有良好的相关性,土壤化学计量特征与微生物量和酶活性化学计量特征间同样具有良好的相关性。撂荒演替植被过程中植物计量特征主要受土壤速效和水溶性氮磷比影响。
以上结果表明,撂荒演替植被恢复不同阶段植物-土壤反馈对植物特性、土壤肥力和微生物特性均有显著影响作用,但植物特性、土壤肥力和微生物特性的响应特征因植物种类和土壤条件不同而具有明显差异。在植物-土壤反馈过程中,土壤全氮、水溶性有机碳、木糖苷酶、丙氨酸酶、土壤细菌群落Chao1指数、黄色单胞菌目和酸微菌目及土壤真菌群落粪壳菌目是植物特性变化的主要影响因子,土壤全氮、木糖苷酶和土壤细菌群落的Chao1指数是物种演替的潜在影响因子。
Other Abstract           Plant-soil feedback has been widely used to explain the mechanism of plant communities succession. However, the studies of plant-soil feedback during secondary succession of abandoned old-fields in the Loess Hilly Region have rarely been reported. In this paper, the typical herbaceous plants of Setaria viridis (pioneer species), Artemisia sacrorum (middle succession stage), and Bothriochloa ischcemum (late successional stage), which at different restoration stages in the loess hilly region were chosen as study objects. A combination method of field and pot experiments were used to systematically analyze the effects of plant-soil feedback at different succession stages on plant characteristics, soil fertility and microbial community characteristics. The main influence factors that affecting the change of plant characteristics were discussed. Our aims were to provide a scientific basis for the restoration and reconstruction of regional ecosystems. The research results indicated that:
         (1) The effects of soil feedback on the photosynthetic characteristics, non-structural carbohydrate concentration, mineral nutrients concentration, biomasses and their allocation of S. viridis, A. sacrorum, and B. ischaemum all were significant. The plant–soil feedbacks and relative interaction intensity indexes were all significantly affected by soil feedback. The plant–soil feedbacks index can reflect the growth status of plants under different soil conditions, which was inhibited or promoted. The relative interaction intensity index can explain the interactions between species at different succession stages: the competition was mainly interspecific competition when the pioneer species growth in its mid-successional or late successional species; the competition was mainly intraspecific competition when the mid-successional or late successional species growth in its pioneer species; the interspecific and intraspecific competition have reached a balance when the mid-successional species growth in its late successional species; and the competition was dominated by intraspecific competition when the late successional species growth in its mid-successional species.
        (2) The effect of plant feedback on the soil fertility, microbial biomass and enzymatic activity were remarkable, but the influences varied with plant species and soil conditions. The relationship between the soil fertility and enzyme activity and plant biomass and non-structural carbohydrate concentration were closely related. The soil total nitrogen, water-soluble organic carbon, β-1,4-xylosidase and alanine aminopeptidase were the main influence factors that affecting the change of plant characteristics, and soil total nitrogen and β-1,4-xylosidase were potential factors affecting species succession.
        (3) Plant feedback had an appreciable effect on diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities, and these impacts were significantly different due to different plant species and soil conditions. For soil bacterial and fungal communities of all the treatments, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the main dominant group at the level of phylum; Alphaproteobacteria and Sordariomycetes were the main dominant group at the level of class; at the level of order, Rhizobiales and Gemmatimonadales were the main dominant group in the soil bacterial communities, Agaricales and Sordariales were the main dominant group in the soil fungal communities. The soil bacterial community mainly affected plant biomass and non-structural carbohydrate. The soil fungal community mainly affected plant biomass, and had a certain impact on the non-structural carbohydrate and nutrient concentrations of plant species. The Chao1 index, Xanthomonadalesand and Acidimicrobiales of soil bacterial community, and Sordariales of soil fungal community were main influence factors that affecting the change of plant characteristics, and Chao1 index of soil bacterial community was potential factor affecting species succession.
        (4) Plant-soil feedback significantly affected the plants, microorganisms and soil stoichiometry, and the change characteristics were significantly different due to the difference of plant species and soil conditions. The stoichiometry of plant aboveground parts had a good correlations with soil, microbial biomass and enzymatic activity stoichiometry. The soil stoichiometry also had good correlations with microbial biomass and enzymatic activity stoichiometry. The plant stoichiometry were mainly affected by the soil available and water-soluble ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus in the process of vegetation restoration and succession.
        The above results indicated that plant-soil feedback at different succession stages of abandoned land had significant effects on plant characteristics, soil fertility and microbial properties, and the response characteristics of plant characteristics, soil fertility and microbial characteristics, however, varied due to different plant species and soil conditions. In the process of plant-soil feedback, soil total nitrogen, water-soluble organic carbon, β-1,4-xylosidase, alanine aminopeptidase, Chao1 index, Xanthomonadales and Acidimicrobiales of soil bacterial community, and Sordariales of soil fungal community were main influence factors that affecting the change of plant characteristics. Soil total nitrogen, β-1,4-xylosidase and Chao1 index of soil bacterial community was potential factor affecting species succession.
Subject Area理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8138
Collection水保所2018--届毕业生论文
Affiliation中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
艾泽民. 黄土丘陵区撂荒演替典型草本植物-土壤反馈研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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