ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--2019届毕业生论文
延安市土地利用变化及其土壤保持功能效应研究——基于InVEST模型的应用
王森
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor谢永生 ; 骆汉
2018-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline水土保持与荒漠化防治
Keyword延安市 Invest模型 土地利用变化 土壤侵蚀强度 土壤保持服务功能及价值
Abstract        区域的土壤侵蚀状况和生态系统的土壤保持功能不仅与降雨强度、土壤性质、地形条件等自然因素密切相关,还受人为活动等因素的影响。对于延安市来说,大规模退耕还林工程的实施显著影响了当地的土地利用状况及植被覆盖条件,从而引起了区域土壤侵蚀量及保持量的改变。本文分析了延安市十五年来的土地利用变化,并在此基础上,采用InVEST模型即生态系统服务功能与权衡交易综合评价模型中的“泥沙输移比”模块,对延安市退耕还林前后2000年和2015年的土壤侵蚀量、土壤保持服务功能及其价值进行了评估,并探讨了土地利用变化对土壤侵蚀及土壤保持服务功能的影响。得出结论如下:
      (1)2000~2015年,延安市的土地利用类型均以林地、草地和耕地为主,三者占全市面积的90%以上。十五年间各土地利用类型均发生了显著变化,其中林地的面积增幅最大,耕地面积大幅减少。林地主要分布于10°以上的缓坡和陡坡地上,15年来林地面积在各坡段上均有增加且在大于25°的陡坡地上增加最为显著;草地在各坡段上的分布及变化与林地较为一致;耕地各坡段面积均是减少的,且在大于25°的陡坡上几乎全部退耕;城镇用地大多分布于15°以下,15年来各坡段面积比例变化不大,但各坡段面积均处于增加状态;水域面积集中分布在10°以下坡段,且各坡段上面积均有增加。15年间延安市各地类之间转换较为频繁,退耕还林工作主要经历退耕还草、退耕还林、草地逐渐转为林地的循序渐进过程。
      (2)延安市2000年及2015年的土壤侵蚀总量分别为220.06106t, 138.37106t。其土壤侵蚀强度的空间分布特征较为明显,微度侵蚀和轻度侵蚀主要集中分布在延安市南部的低山丘陵区及黄土沟间地貌区,强度、极强度和剧烈侵蚀主要分布在东北和西北部的黄土丘陵沟壑区。延安市土壤侵蚀强度随着坡度的增大而呈增强的趋势,但十五年间强度、极强度和剧烈侵蚀在各坡段上的面积均有不同程度的减少且面积向较陡的坡段集中,说明了治理土壤侵蚀的关键和难点主要在大于25°的陡坡上。延安市15年间共有18792.22km2的不同土壤侵蚀类型面积发生了转换,占区域面积的51.21%。整体来看,15年间各侵蚀强度类型均有向低等级侵蚀强度类型转换的趋势。耕地面积的减少对强度、极强度、剧烈侵蚀面积的减少占主导作用,而林地、草地面积的增加是区域内微度侵蚀和轻度侵蚀面积增加的主要因素,草地面积的变化也对区域内中度侵蚀面积增加起主导作用。
      (3)延安市2000年和2015年的土壤保持总量为771.60×106t和849.33×106t,各子流域的土壤保持强度集中分布在100t/hm2 ~ 200t/hm2和200t/hm2 ~ 300t/hm2之间,二者之和占80%左右,此外,十五年间土壤保持量较高等级(>200 t/hm2)的面积均有不同程度增加。延安市的土壤保持功能分布总体呈现由东北向西南增加的趋势,较高值出现在西南土壤侵蚀强度较低的区域和西北土壤侵蚀较高的区域。延安市的土壤保持量及单位面积土壤保持量均随着坡度的增加而增加。2000年和2015年的土壤保持功能价值分别为861.63亿元和940.45亿元,各区县的单位面积土壤保持功能价值均值为2.43元/平方米,各地类中林地、草地的单位面积土壤保持价值最大,均值分别为2.73元/平方米、2.43元/平方米。各地类的单位面积土壤保持量均为林地>草地>耕地>水域>城镇>裸地,且15年来各地类的土壤保持模数均有不同程度的增加,林地和草地的土壤保持效果最佳,均在200t/hm2以上。在土地利用类型发生变化的区域,草地向林地、耕地的转移,以及耕地向林地、草地的转移是区域土壤保持功能增加的主要动力和因素。
Other Abstract        The soil erosion and the soil conservation function of the ecosystem are not only closely related to the rainfall intensity, soil properties, topographic conditions, but also affected by human activities and other natural factors. For Yan’an city, the implementation of large-scale Grain for Green Project has significantly affected local land use and vegetation cover conditions, thus causing changes in the amount of soil erosion and conservation in the region. This paper analyzes the land use change in Yan’an city in the past 15 years, and on this basis, adopts the "sediment delivery model" in The Integrate Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs Tool. The amount of soil erosion, the function of soil conservation service and the value of soil erosion in 2000 and 2015 before and after Grain for Green Project in Yan’an City were evaluated. The effects of land use change on soil erosion and soil conservation service function were also discussed. The conclusions are as follows:
       (1) From 2000 to 2015, the main types of land use in Yan’an city are woodland, grassland and farmland, which account for more than 90% of the total area of the city. During the past 15 years, significant changes have taken place in all land use types, with the largest increase in the area of woodland and a significant decrease in the area of cultivated land. The forestland is mainly distributed on gentle slopes and steep slopes above 10 °. In the past 15 years, the area of woodland has increased in all slope segments and has increased most significantly on steep slopes more than 25 °. The distribution and variation of grassland on each slope is consistent with that of woodland, and the area of cultivated land in each slope is reduced, and almost all of them are returned to farmland on steep slopes larger than 25 °. Most of the urban land is distributed below 15 °, the area ratio of each slope segment has not changed much in the past 15 years, but the area of each slope section is in an increasing state. The area of water area is concentrated in the downhill section of 10 °, and the area of each slope section is increased. In the past 15 years, the conversion of cultivated land to forest was more frequent in Yan’an city. The conversion of farmland to forest and grassland to forest land were mainly carried out step by step. 
        (2) The total soil erosion in Yan’an city in 2000 and 2015 was 220.06 × 106 t and 138.37 × 106 t, respectively. The spatial distribution of soil erosion intensity is obvious. The intensity of micro-erosion and slight erosion are mainly distributed in the low hilly region of southern Yan’an city and the loess-gully landform area. Polar intensity and severe erosion are mainly distributed in the Loess Hilly and Gully region in the Northeast and Northwest of city. The intensity of soil erosion in Yan’an city increases with the increase of slope, but in the past 15 years, the intensity, extreme intensity and intense erosion have decreased in varying degrees and the area has been concentrated in steeper slope segments. It is shown that the key and difficulty of controlling soil erosion are mainly on steep slopes greater than 25 °. During the past 15 years, the area of different soil erosion types of 18792.22km2 has changed, accounting for 51.21% of the regional area. As a whole, each erosion intensity type changed to low grade erosion intensity type in 15 years. The decrease of farmland area plays a leading role in the decrease of intensity, extreme intensity and intense erosion area, while the increase of woodland and grassland area is the main factor of increasing the area of micro-erosion and slight erosion in the region. The change of grassland area also plays a leading role in increasing the area of moderate erosion in the region.
          (3) The total soil conservation in Yan’an city in 2000 and 2015 was 772 million t and 850 million t respectively. The soil conservation intensities of each sub-basin are concentrated in the range of 100 t/hm2 ~ 200 t/hm2 and 200 t/hm2 ~ 300 t/hm2. The sum of the two accounts for about 80%. In addition, the area of higher soil conservation (> 200 t / hm2) increased in different degrees during 15 years of soil conservation. The distribution of soil conservation function in Yan’an city showed an increasing trend from northeast to southwest, and the higher values appeared in the regions with lower soil erosion intensity in the southwest and areas with higher soil erosion in the northwest of city. Soil conservation and soil conservation per unit area of Yan’an city increased with the increase of slope. In 2000 and 2015, the value of soil conservation function in Yan’an city was 86.163 billion yuan and 94.045 billion yuan respectively. The average value of soil conservation function per unit area of each district and county was 2.43 yuan / square meter. Among the woodland types, grassland had the largest soil conservation value per unit area. The mean value was 2.73 yuan / square meter and 2.43 yuan / square meter respectively. The soil conservation amount per unit area of each area is woodland > grassland >farmland > water area > town > bare land, and the modulus of soil conservation has increased to some extent in the past 15 years. The soil conservation effect of woodland and grassland is the best, all above 200t/hm2. In the regions where land use types change, the transfer of grassland to woodland and farmland, and the transfer of cultivated land to forestland and grassland are the main driving forces and factors to increase the function of regional soil conservation.
Subject Area农学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8131
Collection水保所2018--2019届毕业生论文
Affiliation中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王森. 延安市土地利用变化及其土壤保持功能效应研究——基于InVEST模型的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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