ISWC OpenIR  > 水保所2018--届毕业生论文
陕北退耕区农业产业-资源系统耦合机制研究
成思敏
Subtype硕士
2018-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline水土保持与荒漠化防治
Keyword农业产业-资源系统 耦合机制 演变过程 陕北 退耕区域
Abstract退耕还林(草)工程的实施改善了退耕区域的生态环境,水土流失基本实现有效控制,农业资源存量有所增加,但资源存量并未有效转化为现实生产力,产业发展未完全建立在对资源有效利用的基础上,仍存在农业产业与资源局部相悖等问题,究其原因是未建立有效的农业产业-资源系统耦合机制。而目前围绕“机制”等相关问题的研究主要集中在“驱动要素”等方面,未能完全揭示“机制”的本质。基于此,同时也作为本文的主线,通过对农业产业-资源系统演替过程影响较大的上世纪80年代初开始实施的小流域综合治理(以纸坊沟流域为代表)及近年来实施的退耕还林工程(以吴起县为代表)的分析,界定农业产业-资源系统耦合机制的内涵,分析农业产业-资源系统耦合机制主要作用对象与机制的互动过程,明确农户生计策略与机制的作用关系,理清耦合机制的构成要素及其耦合路径;在此基础上,构建农业产业-资源系统良性耦合机制,以促进退耕区域农业生态经济可持续发展。主要结论有:
(1)界定了退耕区域农业产业-资源系统耦合机制的内涵,明确了耦合机制的特征及类型。农业产业-资源系统耦合机制是由推动农业产业、农业资源耦合的动力机理,以及维持和改善这种作用机理的各种生态关系、经济关系、组织制度等构成的系统,它具有三个特征:(1)依赖一定的载体(技术载体、制度载体、市场载体)对系统进行调控;(2)具有相对稳定性和阶段性;(3)调控效果具有滞后性。根据人类需求目标的差异,将耦合机制划分为单一线型耦合机制、多维链型耦合机制、网型耦合机制三种类型。近80年来,纸坊沟流域农业产业-资源系统先后受到单一线型耦合机制和多维链型耦合机制的调控,系统目标由单一生产粮食为主转化为生态、经济效益并重。
(2)明确了农业产业-资源耦合系统的动力源及其与农业产业-资源系统耦合机制的互动过程。农户(生计策略)是农业产业-资源耦合系统的动力源,退耕区域农户生计策略可划分为:自然型生计策略、扩张型生计策略、多样化生计策略、集约化生计策略和迁移型生计策略,纸坊沟流域先后经历了前4种生计策略。其中,自然型生计策略与农业产业-资源系统耦合机制协同一致,其他三种生计策略与农业产业-资源系统耦合机制总体上相协调,但局部驱动要素间出现冲突;目前纸坊沟流域仍是集约化生计策略,其主要问题是大量林草资源未得到利用,资源禀赋与国家政策未达到有效耦合。因此,需基于农户生计策略的要求,建立良性耦合机制,促使资源的优化配置,实现农业产业-资源优化耦合。
(3)确定了农业产业-资源耦合机制的构成要素及其作用路径。首先,通过对农业产业-资源系统耦合机制演变过程的分析,确定了政策、信息(技术、市场)、农业资源、农业产业是机制的构成要素;其次,利用结构方程模型,通过对典型退耕区域——吴起县2016年497户农户调研资料的分析,进一步验证了政策、信息(技术、市场)、农业资源、农业产业是系统耦合机制的基本构成和重要驱动要素。吴起县在多维链型耦合机制的调控下,农业产业有所发展,但仅停留在资源显性利用上,农业产业-资源系统局部相悖,其对经济效益总的标准化路径系数为0.112,且产业对经济效益的路径系数仅为-0.047;从各驱动要素间相互作用来看,农业产业与农业资源单向作用,系统部分链网缺失,说明目前的耦合机制不能有效支撑农业产业-资源系统的良性运行。因而,需要通过对政策、信息(技术、市场)、农业资源、农业产业等要素的优化组合,构建新的良性耦合机制,进而实现吴起县农业产业-资源系统的优化耦合。
(4)构建了退耕区域农业产业-资源系统良性耦合机制。基于对机制各要素(农业产业、农业资源、政策制度、市场信息、技术手段)未来发展趋势的分析,优化调整外生潜变量——政策制度、市场信息及技术手段,通过建立林草—碳汇产业,强化林草—畜牧业产业链,以及发展退耕区域生态旅游等,促进农业产业-资源系统的优化耦合;通过退耕区域农业技术的创新与推广,提高农户对现有农业资源的利用效率,促进在农户生计策略下资源优化耦合;通过不断增强市场信息的流通,完善农村信息市场,提高农产品附加值,实现农业产业耦合。该机制的运行,弥补农业产业-资源系统缺失的链网,保障资源生态价值的经济显化,最终实现产业-资源系统的良性运行,促进退耕区域生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好。
Other AbstractThe implementation of the Grain for Green Project has improved the ecological environment of the de-farming regions, effectively controlling the soil erosion and increasing the stock of agricultural resources, but the stock of resources has not been converted into realistic productivity effectively. The development of industry is not entirely based on the effective utilization of resources, and there still exists contradiction between agricultural industry and resources. The reason is that the effective coupling mechanism of agricultural industry-resources system has not been established. At present, the research on mechanism and other related issues mainly focus on driving factors and so on, and can not fully reveal the essence of mechanism. Based on this, the agricultural industry resources are defined by analysis of the comprehensive management of small watershed (represented in the Zhifanggou watershed) which has been implemented in the early 80s of the last century, and analysis of the Grain for Green Project (represented in Wuqi County) in recent years, which has been greatly influenced by the succession process of the agricultural industry-resources system. The connotation of system coupling mechanism is analyzed, the interaction process of the main action object and mechanism of the agricultural industry-resources system coupling mechanism is analyzed, the relationship between the farmer’s Livelihood Strategy and the mechanism is clearly defined, and the elements and the coupling path of the coupling mechanism are clarified. On this basis, the benign coupling mechanism of the agricultural industry-resources system is constructed to promote the agricultural ecological economy sustainable development in the de-farming regions. The main results are as follows:
(1) It defines the connotation, characteristics and types of the agricultural industry-resources system coupling mechanism in de-farming regions. The agricultural industry-resources system coupling mechanism is a system which is made up of the dynamic mechanism of promoting the coupling of agricultural industry and agricultural resources, as well as the systems of various ecological relations, economic relations and organizational systems to maintain and improve this mechanism. It has three characteristics: 1) relying on a certain carrier (technology carrier, system carrier and market carrier) to regulate the system. 2)with relative stability and stages. 3) the effect of control is lagging. According to the difference of human demand, the coupling mechanism is divided into three types, including single linear coupling mechanism, multi-dimensional chain coupling mechanism and network coupling mechanism. In recent 80 years, the agricultural industry-resources system of Zhifanggou watershed has experienced the regulation of single linear coupling mechanism and multi-dimensional chain coupling mechanism. The goal of the system has transformed from ecological benefit of single production grain to ecological and economic benefits.
(2) It clarifies the driving force of agricultural industry-resources coupling system and its interaction with the system coupling mechanism. The peasant (livelihood strategy) is the driving force of the agricultural industry-resources coupling system. Farmers livelihood strategies include natural livelihood strategy, expanded livelihood strategy, diversified livelihood strategy, intensive livelihood strategy and migration livelihood strategy. The evolution in Zhifanggou watershed has experienced the first four. Among them, the natural livelihood strategy is consistent with system coupling mechanism. The other three are generally coordinated with system coupling mechanism. However, there are conflicts between some of the driving factors. The current livelihood strategy in Zhifanggou watershed is still intensive. The main problem is that a large number of forest and grass resources are not being used as well as resource endowment and national policies are not coupled effectively. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a benign coupling mechanism based on the livelihood strategy, and to promote the optimal allocation of resources for the efficient development of agricultural industry-resources system.
(3) It determines the components and function paths of the agricultural industry-resources system coupling mechanism. First, the constituent elements of the agricultural industry-resources system coupling mechanism are determined by analyzing of the evolution process of the coupling mechanism. Second, using structural equation model, based on the survey data of 497 households in 2016 of Wuqi County, a typical area of de-farming regions, it is verified that policy, information (technology, market), agricultural resources and agricultural industry are the basic components and important drivers of the system coupling mechanism elements and the county has formed a relatively stable multi-dimensional chain coupling mechanism. Under the control of this mechanism, the agricultural industry has developed to a certain extent. However, it only uses the manifest value of resources, which hampers the optimization of the coupling relationship of agricultural resource and agricultural industry. The total standardized path coefficient of economic benefit is 0.112, and the path coefficient between the industry and economic benefit is only -0.047. From the perspective of the interaction of driving factors,the one-way effect between agricultural industry and agricultural resources and the lack of part of the system chain network indicated that the current coupling mechanism can't effectively support the healthy operation of agricultural industry-resources system. Therefore, it is necessary to build a new benign coupling mechanism through the optimized combination of policy, information (technology, market), agricultural resources and agricultural industry so as to realize the optimal coupling of agricultural industry-resources system in Wuqi County.
(4) It constructs a benign coupling mechanism of agricultural industry-resources system. Based on the analysis of the development trend of the various elements of the mechanism (agricultural industry, agricultural resources, policy, market information and technique), it adjusts the exogenous latent variables. It establishes the forest grass- carbon sequestration industry and strengthens the industrial chain of forest grass -livestock industry. In order to promote the optimization coupling of agricultural industry and resource system, the cultivation of agricultural industry and resource system should be promoted. Through the innovation and popularization of agricultural technology, the efficiency of farmers’ utilization of existing agricultural resources and the optimization of the coupling of resources under the farmers livelihood strategy are promoted, and the rural information market is perfected through continuous enhancement of the circulation of market information and the improvement of the rural information market. The operation of the mechanism will make up for the lack of chain network in the agricultural industry-resources system.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/8104
Collection水保所2018--届毕业生论文
Affiliation中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
成思敏. 陕北退耕区农业产业-资源系统耦合机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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