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降雨条件下两种土壤类型工程堆积体坡面 水沙关系与侵蚀动力特征
聂慧莹1; 王文龙1,2; 郭明明1; 康宏亮1
2020
Source Publication应用生态学报
Volume31Issue:9Pages:3141-3153
Abstract
随着生产建设活动的日益频繁,其产生的工程堆积体逐渐成为人为水土流失的主要
来源本研究选取风沙土和红土堆积体,通过室内模拟降雨试验,研究了不同雨强( 1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5 mm·min-1 ) 和砾石含量( 0
10%
20%
30%) 条件下,两种土质工程堆积体坡面侵蚀
过程中水沙关系和侵蚀水动力特征的变化结果表明: 风沙土堆积体产沙率随时间呈波动
式增大趋势; 红土堆积体在 1.0 mm·min-1 雨强时先增大后逐渐稳定,其他雨强则迅速下降后
呈波动变化的趋势,且雨强越大砾石含量越小,波动越剧烈风沙土堆积体在 0 10%砾石
含量时存在坡面细沟侵蚀,细沟侵蚀阶段的产沙率是片蚀阶段的 6.74 ~ 57.40 倍; 红土堆积体
坡面侵蚀过程可划分为松散颗粒侵蚀阶段和土石侵蚀阶段,松散颗粒侵蚀阶段产沙率是土石
侵蚀阶段的 1.05~3.49 两类堆积体产沙率均随雨强增大而增大,
1.0 1.5 mm·min-1
强时产沙率随砾石含量增大而波动变化,雨强>1.5 mm·min-1 时则随砾石含量增大而减小,
相同条件下,风沙土堆积体产沙率是红土的 1.45 ~ 4.14 风沙土堆积体侵蚀过程中水沙关
系由水大沙少向水大沙多转变,而红土堆积体则呈相反变化: 水大沙多时期,风沙土堆积体
产沙增速是红土堆积体的 1.94 ~ 37.60 倍; 水大沙少时期,红土堆积体产沙减速是风沙土的
1.40~21.30总体上,径流功率在描述两类堆积体侵蚀动力过程方面优于径流剪切力,临
界径流功率均随砾石含量增大而增大,其中,风沙土堆积体在细沟侵蚀阶段的临界径流功率
( 0.02~0.04 W·m-2 ) 是片蚀阶段的 2 倍,且两阶段临界径流功率均低于红土堆积体本研究
结果可为工程堆积体侵蚀预测模型的建立提供科学参考
Other Abstract
The engineering deposits produced by
the
increasing frequency of production and con-
struction activities are the main source of man-made
soil erosion. In this studywe examined the
change of runoff-sediment relationship and erosion hydrodynamic characteristics with the engineering
deposits of aeolian sandy soil and red soilbased on simulated rainfall
experiments with different
gravel
contents ( 010%20%30%) and rainfall intensities
( 1.01.52.02.5 mm·min-1 )
The
results showed that the sediment yield rate of the aeolian sandy soil deposits gradually increased
with
the duration of rainfall. The sediment yield rate of red soil deposits under 1.0 mm·min-1 rain-
fall intensity increased first and then gradually stabilized. Under other rainfall densitiesthere was a
trend of fluctuation after rapid declinethe greater the rainfall intensity and the smaller the gravel
contentthe more intense the fluctuation. When the gravel content was 0
and 10%there were rills
erosion on the slope surface of aeolian sandy soil
accumulationand the
sediment yield
rate of rill
development stage was 6.74-57.40 times of that
of the sheet erosion stage. The erosion
process of
red soil deposits could be divided into two stages:
the loose particle erosion and the soil-rock erosion
stage. The sediment yield rate of the loose particle
erosion stage
was
1.05-3.49 times that of the
soil-rock erosion stage. In
generalthe sediment
yield rate
of
two
soil deposits increased with
increasing rainfall intensity.
The sediment yield rate fluctuated
with the increases of gravel content at
1.0 and 1.5 mm·min-1with a decreasing trend under >1.5
mm·min-1 . The sediment yield rate
of aeolian sandy soil deposits was 1.45-4.14 times of that of red soil deposits under the same rainfall
and gravel content conditions. During the
erosion process of aeolian sandy
soil depositsthe runoff-
sediment relationship changed from low
sediment concentration to high
sediment concentration
while there
was a reverse relationship for
red soil deposits. During the high sediment concentration
periodthe
increasing rate of the
sediment yield rate of aeolian sandy soil deposits was 1.94-37.60
times of that of red
soil deposits.
For low sediment concentration
periodthe decreasing rate of the
sediment yield rate
of
red soil deposits was 1.40-21.30
times
of
that of aeolian sandy soil deposits.
In generalthe runoff
power was better than the runoff
shear
force in describing the erosion dyna-
mics
of these two types of deposits. The critical runoff power
increased with increasing gravel con-
tent.
The critical runoff power of aeolian sandy soil deposits during the rill erosion stage ( 0.02-0.04
W·m-2 )
was two times of that of the sheet erosion stagewhile the critical stream power was lower
than
that
of the red soil deposits. These
results provide a scientific reference for modelling soil ero-
sion
processes for engineering deposits.
Keyword工程堆积体 土壤类型 侵蚀过程 水动力机制 水沙关系
Indexed By中文核心期刊要目总览
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iswc.ac.cn/handle/361005/10040
Collection水保所知识产出(1956---)
Affiliation1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室
2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
聂慧莹,王文龙,郭明明,等. 降雨条件下两种土壤类型工程堆积体坡面 水沙关系与侵蚀动力特征[J]. 应用生态学报,2020,31(9):3141-3153.
APA 聂慧莹,王文龙,郭明明,&康宏亮.(2020).降雨条件下两种土壤类型工程堆积体坡面 水沙关系与侵蚀动力特征.应用生态学报,31(9),3141-3153.
MLA 聂慧莹,et al."降雨条件下两种土壤类型工程堆积体坡面 水沙关系与侵蚀动力特征".应用生态学报 31.9(2020):3141-3153.
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